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Information in the ebook with a subset is in the communication theory in knowledge which a transmitter can provide for a receiver by means of signals about a certain medium (also‚ canal of information‘ called).

Information can satisfy a general or special interest in knowledge – only the imagination stimulates if necessary to the realisation of a certain plan (action-stamping‘) – or they. Information can be consciously transmitted as news about a canal / data carrier by a transmitter to a receiver or be advanced also unconsciously and strike by the perception of form and quality of an object. Transmitters and receivers can be people and higher developed animals as well as other complicated systems (how machines, computer (programmes)). In the human area information provides information about at least one of the questions who? what? where? when? how? why? with whose help of e-books?

Information receives her value by the interpretation of the whole events at different levels which runs off partly consciously, mainly, however, unconsciously. In it we reduce on the one hand the information capacity after certain algorithms, they filter, e.g., according to our knowledge interest, however, on the other hand, they also extend by linking with available information.

Different meanings: The expression “information” becomes applied in detail with different, however, closely with each other to being connected meanings. After the ebook he has used:

for the activity of the Informierens; example: an advertising prospectus provide and dispatch.
Furthermore information can mean the canal of information; example: the prospectus.
In addition, this can be in an understanding referring on the receiver of information the deliberate (knowledge) to be achieved change with the receiver; example: Receiver should know product and price.
Finally, “information” can be understood concerning the real message (the quite most-used meaning of e-book). This understanding hangs together with that of the process, nevertheless, does not mean the (physical) communication canal, but rather that what is dispatched about this; example: A representation description of the product

Difference to data: Data are only representations / information about circumstances and processes which exist in the form of certain signs / symbols on certain data carriers. From them can become by cognitive activities of the receiver’s information, purpose-related knowledge which one needs with the action in view of set goals. This happens, while perceived data‚ intraindividuell’ (from the respective individual) semantisiert and other operations (as for example conclusions) are explained. With the help of the same data people can win different information ebook.

The concepts information and data are related closely with each other. The following examples explain the difference:

In the data banks of Wikipedia become‚ data‘ controlled; these are for the purpose of a later use in a certain code on a data carrier stored signs. Whether and when they are used, does not matter to them, they wait in theirs‚ memory‘ for potential use. On account of a user inquiry (= concrete need of information) generates the Wikipedia use an answer side (medium of information) which is presented to the Anfrager in a certain representation format from which he derives (in the given purpose connection)‚ information‘.
From a professional article in a magazine (data‘) somebody who controls the field numerous and for him can derive important information. If a reader understands only the language into which the article is written, he can take up if necessary only coarse connections as information, he also does not understand the language, the article for him delivers practically no information.
A text published on the radio exists of data which the radioreceiver receives in the form of radio waves or radiowaves. He converts them into sound waves (= processing of the data) and emits this, a new stamping of data, as tones. Listeners can win from it, analogously to the example professional article, here, however, only at the moment of the radiation, individually information. After the radiation these data do not exist any more – in contrast to the text contributions perhaps still archived in the radio company.
‚ Information‘ is used, for example, also synonymously for news, information, instruction, clarification, e-books partly also for media like newspaper article, Internet sites, e-mails, telephone calls, reports (quarter, project, business report), prospectuses and pamphlets, timetables, weather reports and v. a. m. – they, however, i. e. S. only they‚ bearers of information‘, are not the information themselves. These examples show the wide spreading and fundamental importance of the concept ‘information’ in nearly all (life) to areas.

If the receiver is a user of a (electronic) information system which acts as it were as a transmitter and canal, there are the effects of the Browsing and the Serendipity. One understands by Browsing accidental hunting out of information during the real search according to certain information and this is lost not out of sight. Problem formulations relevant for action can become conscious possibly also only by chance found, suitable information. Serendipity calls the (increasing) loss of the aim orientation with the search according to certain information by distraction and the real aim is lost out of sight ebook.

Because the concept of the information has often been defined, some classical definition attempts which correspond at the same time to the different meanings of the information are introduced ebook:

The definition „information is the subset of knowledge which is required by a certain person or group in a concrete situation and often does not explicitly exist“ it puts particularly the need and the news value from the point of view of the receiver (user) in the centre.
„Information is the reduction of uncertainty on the basis of technical processes of information“ is primary on the mediation process, covered so the activity of the transmitter.
Carpenter represents a beginning oriented to user which puts the knowledge change relevant for action in the centre: „Information is the (successful) transfer of knowledge,“ is the (new) knowledge which leads with the recipient to a change of the present knowledge. In the narrower sense it is the knowledge which a person (or an institution) lacked before to make a proper decision with a topical problem.
With „information knowledge is in action“ makes to hollows the action aspect of information clear.
The concept in different sciences
Information is an extensively used concept hardly to be separated. Different sciences (structural sciences and humanities) look at the information as her scope of work, in particular the informatics, the communication theory and the science of information, the communications engineering, the economics of information and the semiotics, they can be mathematical, more philosophically or more empirically (a possibly sociological) concept.

Only recently there are attempts to connect the single attempts and to come to a universally valid concept of information. Suitable literature is found currently mostly under the headword Philosophy (possibly in the area of Epistemology). Of a standardised, in general accepted theory of the information cannot be spoken provisionally yet.

Generally usage as well as in some sciences (semiotics, sciences of information) is equated “information” with “meaning” or „to transferred knowledge“. Another perception of the concept which is today, for example, in the computer engineering of big practical meaning comes from the communications engineering. The groundbreaking theory there is that of Claude Shannon; he looks at the statistical aspects of the signs in a code, the information represented. The meaning of the information comes with Shannon only implicitly in the likelyhood of the used signs who can be determined, in the end, only under aid of a person, because only the person is able to grasp the meaning of a code consciously and, besides, sensible can make a distinction from not sensible code. The immediate aim of his considerations is the optimum transference of information in a news canal (telephony, radiocommunication).

The concept information and other concepts from the communication theory are often used in the everyday usage and also in the natural sciences in a metaphoric manner. A direct takeover of the concept information in scientific theories, as well as he is used in the engineer’s sciences, nevertheless, is rejected by some science theorists as inadmissible. For example, science philosopher Wolfgang download warned ebooks. So about a revival of the neovitali’s mush by immoderate use of theoretical of information concepts in the biology. Nevertheless, it cannot be excluded that in future the scientific structural concept and the concept of information can be led back on each other. Thus possibly the neuro informatics and the Computational Neuroscience examine the respect of neural structures of the brain as well as his ability to process information.

„Energy, matter and information show three most important basic concepts of the natural sciences and engineer’s sciences. For the informatics which gets on as the science of the systematic processing of information the concept is information of central meaning; up to now, nevertheless, it has hardly been specified. Something can be stated about them.“ (after e books)

She serves the purpose of the knowledge increase or the potential or actual users or reduces their ignorance (entropy) – to carry out, e.g., around an action (to hit, e.g., decision).
She is then for us from value if it extends our knowledge about the world: She provides a difference, “News is what’s different e book.”
Information needs no attached bearer. Not the medium of information is the information, but that what ‘transports’ the medium.
She is “slide-logical”, so transmitter and nutzerbezogen – and with it dependent on communication: Without functioning communication canal the information sent off by the transmitter does not reach the receiver.
She originates from transference of matter (microscopic and makroskopisch), from energy or from impulses. She reaches the person about the senses as well as in the chemically biological sense about receptors and nerves.
Information is often copiable arbitrarily, she knows no originals.
Information does not grow old; anyhow she can become inaktuell – and then is substituted, e.g., with new information (price of a product)
Information is combinable almost arbitrarily. One cannot look to her whether her parts belong to each other; manipulations are arbitrarily possible.
Information can be strongly compressed – but rolled out also empty.
In enlarged sense also count the criteria which determine the quality of information, to the qualities which information can / should show. This are, for example: Zweckorientiertheit, truth / correctness, completeness, consistency (freely of contradiction), credibility and Prüfbarkeit, actuality. See quality of information.

The following examples explain in detail traits from‚ information‘:

Road sign (e.g., arrow signpost No. 418) in a crossroads: The information ‘A town 12 km’ becomes by the visual transport (‘canal of information’) of the perceived sign – his text, the colour and his form (direction arrow) – to the (interested) road user the information, consisting of the code (letter et cetera), the syntax (words, distance information, direction of the arrow) and the semantics (points after …). She extends his knowledge and reduces his unawareness (where does it go? how wide is it still? on the right or turn left? …). Pure ‘seeing’ of this sign (as a medium) or even his non-perception makes the sign and his contents just as little the information as if the sign in a drawer would lie.

Info box on the traffic jam wall crown of the download e-book in the Austrian Malta valley. Here information about the dispersion and construction is promised.
Book / newspaper: The reader takes up numerous information as an enlargement of his knowledge. He does this after deliberate search (non-fiction book, encyclopaedia) or simply by reading (interesting new also in the novel), in both cases if necessary only in extracts.‚ information‘ appears often not as a unique concept, but reaches us often in large quantities (also in newscasts etc.). She originates by chance from perception or straight on initiative of the receiver or transmitter.
Other examples:

Boxing of information in the tourism: The audio-box (as a canal of information) gives audible signals of itself which Know to the viewer purpose-oriented (‘about this building’) mediate.
Prices of a product in the shop-window: Prices are ‘data’ which become by perception by interested passers-by for this the information.
Time: The clock as a medium indicates ‘data’ in a certain form (code; digitally, analogously). The time becomes the information for a viewer interested in the time; she has a meaning for him.

Structure and meaning
A perception goes out from the bearer of information. The question which structure can be ascertained within this bearer is examined.

Another beginning tries to understand which meaning comes up to him what one has taken then (anyhow) from this bearer of information.

The first perception has her roots in the communications engineering, second in the Kognitionswissenschaft, the linguistics or in general in the humanities. A news-technically recognizable structure (for example, the light pulses which hit in a temporal order on single cells in the net skin) must be translated in a complicated Dekodierungsprozess into a meaning.

Where here the pure structural information stops and begins to become meaning information where in this Dekodierungsprozess the border is to be pulled to the consciousness, is one of the exciting questions of the information and Kognitionswissenschaften.

Four levels under which the concept of the information is looked today in general arise from these considerations. These are

These levels increase in view of the meaning salary of the information. Besides, they also reflect the theoretical weak points mentioned on top and the coding level of the perception of the communications engineering comes close which returns the perception of the linguistics or which of the theory of the formal languages to syntax level, the semantic level attempts from the semiotics or semantics integrates, and the pragmatism rather at draughts of the Kognitionswissenschaften falls back.

Four levels should be explained in the sign result „IS WARM“:

Code level
The sign result „IT IS WARM“ is too short for a statistical consideration. However, with longer texts becomes clear that not all elements of the sign result (letter) seem equally often. Certain letters as for example e and t – in our example, however, see – are more frequent than others. This fact can be used by the transference of information to save transference time. As an example the Huffman codes are mentioned. They show a procedure with which information can be transmitted efficiently and be stored. Many other procedures exist.

Syntactic level of the information
At the syntactic level information is seen only as the structure which it is a matter to transmit. The contents of the information are dull, on this occasion, in the essentials. For example, the problem could consist in transferring the picture of a camera on a monitor. Besides, the transference system is not interested, for example, in whether it is generally worth the picture to be transferred (burglar potters about at the window) or not (cat runs in the windowsill along), or whether generally is to be recognised a little bit (also the picture of a completely blurred opposed camera it is transferred completely, although there is to see there, actually, nothing recognizable). Besides, the information content is a measure of the maximum efficiency with which the information can be transferred freely of loss.

Unterscheidbarkeit and information content
Basic principle of the syntactic information is the Unterscheidbarkeit: Information contains what can be distinguished and can be distinguished what can be measured. Nevertheless, a differentiation assumes at least two different possibilities.

If there are exactly two possibilities, the differentiation with one single Yes and no question can be cleared. Example: Accepted, on a menu there are only two courts, shreds and spaghetti. We know, the guest has ordered one of both courts. To find out which he has ordered, one needs to put to him only one single question: „Have you ordered shred?„ Is the answer “Yes”, he has ordered a shred, the answer “no” is, he has ordered spaghetti.

However, exist more than two possibilities, one can still find out by means of Yes and no questions which alternative applies. An easy possibility would be to question simply of the order after all courts. However, this is a rather ineffective method: If the guest has still given up no order, one needs a lot of questions to find out it. It is more efficiently if one only asks, for example: „Have you already ordered?“ to become more concrete then, „Was it a court with meat?“, „Was it pork?“, so that, finally, only few alternatives are left („Was to pork shred?“, „roast pork?“, „knuckle of pork?“). The order of the questions reflects the valency of the bits in such an encoded news. The information content of news corresponds to the number of the Yes and no questions which one needs with an ideal interrogative strategy to reconstruct them.

Also the likelyhood plays a role with an optimum interrogative strategy: If one knows, for example, that half of all guests Schweineschnitzel orders, it surely makes sense to ask first of all for pork shred, before one goes through the rest of the map.

It is interesting, on this occasion, that though superficially no semantic or pragmatic information is used, nevertheless, these come implicitly in the form of the likelyhood. For example, is the fact that 50 percent of the guests Schweineschnitzel order not to recognise from the menu; it is pragmatic information. And the fact that one ordinarily after the order „of Us do not wish you a good appetite“ asks, follows from the semantic information that this no food is, and, hence, it is extremely unlikely that somebody orders this.

Binarisierung and the likelyhood of sign
The sign result „IT IS WARM“ contains only capital letter. If we assume once only from the fact that we would have at disposal only capital letter (27 letters including blank), we can put at each of eleven places of the above news one of 27 signs. Every place of the news has 27 possible states.

However, from big technical meaning is the binary code. Every code is shown with a result of bits. 1 bit makes a distinction only between two possible states which one shows with one and zero. So that we can show 27 different states, we need several bits – in this case exactly five. With it one can distinguish 2 high 5 = 32 states.

An obvious, possible binary code looks as follows

Now the above coding of the letters in five Yes and no decisions is not the only valid one. Within the scope of the classical communication theory the sequence of information from statistical view is looked because. Thus it can be considered how often a certain sign of the sign stock is used, in other words as likely his appearance is. Thus, for example, the letter “E” is more frequent into German than the letter “Y”.

If one considers this appearance likelyhood of the signs in the sign stock, one can make the number of the required Yes and no decisions which are necessary for recognising of a sign according to sign differently big. One calls such a coding also entropy coding. With it one needs to encode an often appearing sign, less bits, than for a seldom appearing sign. A sign has needed a the higher information content (to the recognition a higher number in ‘atomic’ decisive units, in bits), the more seldom it appears.

See also: Entropy (communication theory)
Semantic level of the information
Structured, syntactic information becomes only usable, while they are read and are interpreted. That is to the structural level the meaning level must come. In addition a certain frame of reference must be put on to be able to transfer the structures in a meaning. One calls this frame of reference code. In the above example one must know what means “warmly”.

However, the transportation of syntax is seldom so direct in semantics; as a rule the information about a lot of different codes of higher and higher semantic level is processed: Besides, data processing at structural-syntactic level is performed at the different semantic levels again: The light pulses which hit just on your net skin are registered there by nerve cells (meaning for the nerve cell), passed on to the brain, brought in a spatial connection, recognised as letters, to words are joined. During this whole time nervous impulses (structural information) are ‘shot’ by a cerebral cell to the next, until in this manner in her consciousness the concepts only insufficiently returnable by words start to form for “warm”, “now”, and “here” which have a meaning then in the connection: Now they know that it is with these words about the statement that it is warmly (and not possibly coldly).


Structural information is transferred in a Dekodierungsprozess in semantics (meaning).
Besides, structural information is transferred step by step about codes in other structural information and to itself on the different semantic steps in each case meaning develops for the processing system.
See also: Coding and communication (communication theory)
Pragmatic level of the information
This comes most near the colloquial concept of information. Now the statement that it is warm (which we have properly interpreted semantically; we know what wants to say this message us), has real character of information if we consider at noon around twelve after a night of drinking still half somnolent what we should draw, and to us the friend with the words „it is warm“ keeps from slipping in the roll neck pullover. The pragmatic information content him – semantically precisely resemble – however, statement is like zero if we already sit in the T-shirt on the balcony and sweat. This communication offers to us nothing new and, hence, is not informative.

In this connection the read ebook concept (communication science) calls the qualitative measure of the “passport exactness” of information from the perspective of the receiver.

Small talk is a kind of the exchange of information with which the semantic information obviously exchanged about the language shows virtually no pragmatic information – important are here the body signals whose semantics (friendliness, aversion) we recognise and pragmatically (he / she likes me?) can use.

In this pragmatic sense is essential criterion of information that it changes the subject which takes up the information what means specifically that the information which can be taken potentially from the subject changes.


Information allows the reduction of uncertainty, however, the uncertainty can also increase if she increases in volume, is contradictory and is not possible for the Auswertbarkeit in the given time and cost frame.
Information is transferable; in the form of data or signals
Information is an event which can change the state of the receiver or system. Moreover it must be “understood” by the receiver.
In this pragmatic sense “information” is a core concept of the economic informatics and with her related business administration (information as a factor of production, information as an economic property). Very briefly: Information is a reduction of uncertainty.

Relations between the levels
If one looks at the phenomenon information, four levels are to be looked in the connection. So that information takes place, arrangements at all four levels are necessary.

Also the semantic processing (for example, summarising of letter to words) produces again syntactic information (because a sequence of word symbols). In the end, the pragmatic level defines not least itself also by the fact that it itself must create new information of syntactic nature (otherwise, the information would have unfolded no effect). On account of the narrow teamwork between semantic Dekodierungsprozess and active development in the pragmatism which both again syntactic information generates as end products and interproducts these both levels are sometimes melted also to the Semantopragmatik.

The essentials in information are the quality to cause changes in the conceiving system. Because there is up to now no approved uniform theory of the “information”, but merely different models, an unequivocal definition of the concept “information” is not available yet, although also a not approved definition ebook could already lead to the formal description of the experimental process ebooks.

Explanation attempts for the concept of the information come from mind-scientific and social-scientific direction (semantics, semiotics, philosophy, communication science, etc. …), as well as from scientific direction (physics, cybernetics, communications engineering, informatics, etc. …). The different attempts do not coincide, however, have overlappings.

One of the essential differences between arts and scientific models consists in the fact that for the natural sciences already in an interaction of subatomic particles an exchange of information is seen (cf., e.g., the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon to which the classical quotation of Einstein about an „eerie long-distance effect“ e-book is due because here two particles seem to exchange apparently instantan information, instead of with speed of light, as Einstein this predicts.)

The scientific concept of “information” is closely related with the draught of the entropy (i.e. to the second main clause of the thermodynamics). Out of this numerous consequences, according to the numerous consequences which arise from the second main clause of the thermodynamics arise. (One of the possible consequences is: As an object of the natural sciences a potential or actual available usable pattern of matter or forms of energy is understood by information. Information is here what can be derived from the state of a system of the states of other systems.)

This scientific understanding stands in the contradiction to the concept of information which is due to the humanities, as well as dominates the everyday usage.

The humanities as well as the concept of “information” in the everyday use tend to an understanding for which to the concept of the “meaning” a weight-bearing role comes up. The “meaning” is here an intrinsische quality of information with which, moreover, the existence of a (potential) receiver is implied for whom the meaning contents develop.

The current communication models are based on this draught. Therefore assume most arts draughts as well as the extensive understanding in the everyday usage from the fact that information always has a functional meaning, in contrast to the scientific understanding in which neither function nor meaning are compelling constitutive qualities of information.

As a term in the mathematical communication theory information refers to the appearance likelyhood of certain results of elements (for example, of a result of letter) from an agreed amount (for example, to the alphabet). By this definition information about a computable measure of the likelyhood of future events becomes in a technical system. Claude Elwood Shannon (1948) conceived the mathematical theory of the information originally not for the area of human action and human communication, but for the technical optimisation of transference capacities.

In the area of the human action a knowledge becomes under information (more exact: the result of a process of experience) understood to which in the respective topical situation meaning and validity is attached. In this connection the speech of “information” or „will find out“ with a removal or reduction of the uncertainty linked which happens by information, clarification, communication, notification or by knowledge about objects and phenomena. Besides, component of the concept of information is often a rebeing recognizable as well as a news salary.

Communication model of the information
The understanding of the syntactic level was marked long time by the transmitter receiver’s model: A transmitter wants to inform of information the receiver. In addition he encodes his information after certain principles (for example, as a sequence of zeros and Einsen after the principle mentioned on top) in a bearer of information, the receiver evaluates this bearer of information, as he knows the code, and thereby receives the information (see also: Communication).

Nevertheless, a human transmitter which wants to inform of something us not always exists. A typical example is the measurement: It is absolutely no matter to the physical system, figuratively spoken, what people of him think. The aim of the measurement is a transference of information of the measured system to that who carries out the measurement (one misses to find out something about the measured system).

An example is the speed measurement by radar case: The car has no intention not to betray his speed (and the driver mostly also). The policeman still wins information about the speed by the measurement. For the production of the information a physical law is used (the Doppler effect) which was taken up by an engineer to construct the device. The police uses the device and arranges therefore that information is generated. However, the immediate production of information is delegated with it to an apparatus. However, originator of the information also is at this point the person. The radar measuring instrument was developed and then the won measuring results are indicated automatically, in a code given by the people, are taped or transferred.

Also many animals are able to the communication – as a transmitter as well as as a receiver-. Though this is intended in the central issue to the communication with congeners (danger call etc.), however, can be used partially also by the person.


So that information becomes recognizable for the person, matter or energy must show a structure.
Syntactically corresponds information of the appearance likelyhood of a certain symbol within a defined Dekodierungsschemas
Information is in the communication model a spatial or temporal result of physical signals which appear with certain likelyhood or frequencies.
The information content of news arises from the number of the Yes and no possibilities for which in the news one is fixed of the values.
Transport of information, origin and destruction
It is interesting that information which is bound to matter as a bearer of information on or by electromagnetic waves can be transferred. This information can, be advanced because without mass, then, in principle, with speed of light. Finally, the information can be bound again back to matter structures. An example of such a transference process is the fax. Besides, the information of a certain document with speed of light about big distances is transported and transferred in the aim on the second document with the precisely same contents of information.

Universal: To transport information, a bearer of information is necessary.

Can information be transmitted without loss? While copying of software this is the case because technical mechanisms (redundant codes / test sums) provide for it. Information cannot be transmitted in general without becoming thereby less. The magnitude of the loss depends on the physical edge terms. According to Shannon any more information cannot be taken by a transference from a canal than on the transmitter side hineingegeben becomes. However, while transmitting or copying of information it is not doubled in herself, but then she is given only redundant.

In the end, in thermo-dynamically as a system unanimously to be looked information is destroyed, at the latest in the warm death of the universe. In a thermo-dynamically open system information can be transmitted, weight-bearing of information structures can originate even spontaneously. Examples are a huge number of structures dissipativen examined experimentally and theoretically. Particularly Spin systems (Spin = rotary impulse of atomic and subatomic particles), in particular the so-called Spin glasses or Ising models, have very often been examined, not least because of her relevance for the theory of neural nets. Many experiments show that in Ising glasses spontaneously structures can originate which can be interpreted because of the quantized nature of the Spins even already as information being in digitized form which contains, e.g., the origin terms of the structure in coding form.

Digital information
Digital information originates from digitization of any information. The result are data.

Although for the measurement of digital information capacities, for streams of information and for the storage of information the bit and the byte are given as base units, the information capacity is still quantified with pleasure with the help of the respective bearer of information. Thus one can read the digital information capacity which stands in a book easily and clearly in the side number or in the number of the words.

See also: Binary system and artificial intelligence
Definition of the information in different fields
For the end the single fields and research directions which ever have her own understanding of the information should get a chance to speak here. Besides, clearly the respective beginning at the different, levels described on top becomes between the pure syntax up to the pragmatism, partially also with the special stress of the transport character of information.

The semiotics defines data as potential information. Today in the semiotics data are arranged in the Sigmatik level. In older literature they are often still defined than purpose-oriented knowledge, so the data oriented to purpose which extend the knowledge.

Science of information
The science of information uses the concept of the information alike to the semiotischen beginning. For them the concepts are a knowledge and information of central meaning. Besides, information is a knowledge transfer or „knowledge in action“. Information originates in this sense always only in a few points when a person needs knowledge (a certain knowledge unity) for the problem solution. This knowledge unity goes over as information from a knowledge stock in another, for example, from a data bank in the knowledge stock of a person. Knowledge is represented inside, information is presented – to the better understanding for the information-searching–. (Knowledge representation – presentation of information).

See also: Management of information
Information as an economic property
Information can be looked as an economic property, because information produces in the enterprise by application of other factors of production (person, computer, software, communication, etc.), or from the outside can be bought. Information has therefore a value which is tradeable. The value arises from the use of the information and the costs to the production, supply and forwarding. Problematically, on this occasion, it is that the potential buyer not always knows the value of the information in advance and has acquired them partly only after he them, can value (sucked. Paradox of information). Besides, already aimed trade with information is afflicted with the problem of asymmetrical information.

Furthermore one can understand information also as a factor of production. Information is used therefore not only konsumtiv, but can be also used productively.

Documentation apprenticeship and ordinal apprenticeship
Of Wilhelm Gaus documentation apprenticeship and ordinal apprenticeship (1995) writes in his work that information can be looked under different aspects.

Structure = structure approach
Knowledge = knowledge approach
Signal = signal approach
News = message approach
understood news = meaning approach
Knowledge increase = effect approach
Process = process approach
Information as a change
After the works of the Berlin information scientist Peter downloading ebooks: „Information is a change of concrete quantity and duration.“

A definition of the information about change means a description of the information about physical effect. If an easy change is looked as a mathematical element which causes a state change, can be proved that an amount of such elements, the state changes in the same “object” cause and show qualities like connection and repeatability, a mathematical group show which is declared as information with regard to the object. This group permits a length regulation which can be used for optimisation, because because change is a result of physical effect, the variation principle of the slightest effect is also valid. (Spring: The definition of the information and the results)

An other mathematical description which is based on the nature of the change is the description of Jan K å hre: The Law of Diminishing information. (Spring: The Mathematical Theory of information)

Movement is also a change. Therefore, a (other) definition of the information about change occurs about movement difference (movement of information) and difference movement (download): „Information exists only in the movement which is always a complementary, relative movement“.

Related subject complexes
The concept of the information is closely related with questions in the subject complex knowledge. If in particular the problem of the definition of the complexity which can be described about the algorithmische depth of an information-processing process belongs to it. Moreover furthermore considerations about the difference count between chance and order as well as the concept of the Unterscheidbarkeit and the relevance.

In the Algorithmische communication theory a measure with which one can determine the complexity of structures e.g. of the complexity by sign chains was developed. This can be applied under certain conditions also as a measure of the information which has advantages towards to that of Shannon in some aspects.

In a narrow connection stands also the (human) communication: The communicativeness is valid as an essential quality of information and any communication assumes information.

Interesting ebooks:

Information and communication
Logistics of information
Knowledge management
Of information life cycle
Design of information
Efficiency of information
Ethics of information
Explosion of information
Extraction of information
Information society
Infrastructure of information
Competence of information
Information capacity
Paradox of information
Informational programme
Information system
Flood of information
Quantum information
Short storage capacity
Main entrance of information
Intellectual property