Scientific ebook

A scientific work is a systematically jointed text in which one or several scientists the result of his or her independent research explains. Scientific works originate generally at colleges or other, also private, research facilities and are written by students, doctoral candidates or other researchers. Nevertheless, this is no compelling sign. Before scientific conferences it is requested in call for papers for submitting of scientific works.

The methodology is directed basically after the respective professional culture and in her common methods. In the sciences which make a distinction between theoretical and empiric approaches one distinguishes theoretical works which develop theses on the basis of available literature or check (also: Literature study), from the empiric works at which research is pursued immediately in the investigation object which is documented then within the scope of the work. In herm new table to straightened fields is able, according to field and knowledge aim, between investigation-related and certificate-related stylistics as well as reporting or laying out (analytic) aim direction are distinguished and there are also suitable combinations. Thus, e.g., spring situation and research state can be reported, before the springs are analysed, or it is able, e.g. first an analysis are carried out which is discussed then in the light of the research state.

Within the scope of a university study students must provide several times scientific works, namely houseworks, studies and seminar works. The study regularly is concluded by a scientific final work, so, for example, a certificate work, Master work, bachelor work or master work which are examined by the responsible person, the responsible university teacher and if necessary other experts.

For these papers is valid in special measure that careful and conscientious consultation and care of the exam candidates with him or the looking university teachers shows an important basis for her success. One reaches other degrees for higher scientific qualification by a thesis and habilitation writing. Only from the thesis is expected that the work returns not only the research state, but brings a knowledge progress with himself.

The components of the scientific work are not standardised; often they are given by the responsible person, possibly in a special guide. Study end works and further qualifying scientific works exist as a rule of the following components: Title-page; preface; table of contents; list of abbreviations; picture list, tables list or overview list; text part (problem formulation, concept demarcation, historical remarks, investigation method – only at empiric works – way of the investigation, main part (e), summary or result or view); appendix; literature list; solemn explanation.

Scientific works also originate in the science company, while research reports (about results of the research) or scientific articles are written for technical periodicals. The demands of the academic nature are also valid for these works.

Scientific work describes a methodical-systematic action with which the results of the work are objectively understandable for everybody or repeatable. This means, sources of information are disclosed (cited) and experiments described in such a way that they can be reproduced. Who reads a scientific work, can always recognise, on basis of which facts and proofs the author to his conclusions has reached, appeals to which results of the research of other scientists he (Zitation) and which (new) aspects of him are.

In the humanities and natural sciences the claim is based to scientific work on the principle that there never is only one source of information, but always several on a subject. Besides, the following approaches are typical above all for humanities.

In the first step the scientist puts on a logical coarse arrangement to the most important aspects of his subject and sights on her basis suitable springs (primary literature and secondary literature). He goes to archives or to libraries and looks for to himself scientific jobs on his subject or to aspects of his subject. He puts together a bibliography and writes excerpts. In the literature list of the work are later to mention only the works which were also cited.

In the second step he overlooks the material and compares springs and literature. Besides, aims are uncovering of discrepancies and the developing of own opinion.

In the third step the author begins to write a scientific work. Besides, he explains more or less briefly what he has already found in publications and what they can contribute to own project.

Summaries of the different publications or also the summary of single chapters or segments which are confronted then with the extracts of other works are possible. It is possible also to cite foreign authors literally.

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The exact origin information is important for the Belegbarkeit of an assertion. A statement must be traceable back up to the spring and be checkable with it. This also serves the protection of the scientist itself. If he has taken over unchecked wrong information and has not given the origin, he himself is held responsible for the mistake.

All scientific publications, here in particular monographs and magazine articles are quotable as a rule. In isolated cases grey literature is also possible. Non-scientific sources of information (e.g., popular literature, boulevard magazines, private websites) and reference books (Brockhaus) do not belong as a rule to the quotable literature. Whether Wikipedia is quotable, is argumentative.

In the fourth step the scientist develops his own idea; this question discloses the knowledge interest of the author and has immediately influence on the construction of his argumentation. For this he gathers facts or examples and explains what he closes from the presented facts or examples. Besides, he tries to present a proof or document for every assertion and to found every argument. The argumentation way in a scientific work follows the rules of the logic. A result protection in the form of a result (often “result”, “end” or “conclusions” called) or a “summary” is inalienable at last. With a summary is to be noted that here no new thoughts or problems may be introduced. In case of a publication an abstract is often predone, i.e. a short comprising reproduction of draught, method (n) and result (sen) of the work.

In many scientific areas there are specialist terms. Though it is not necessary that scientific works fall back in special way on foreign words, but are often the suitable specialist terms within the scientific community currently and, therefore, lighter understandably. An author can introduce in case of need also own concepts. He does this, while he defines them and uses afterwards always in the same sense.

Phantastik, also Fantastik, is a literary genre concept which is defined in professional circles very differently. External-academically the concept calls “fantastically” everything what is miraculous incredibly, airy-fairy, or wonderful. The origin of the concept „fantastic literature“ is a translation error: E.T.A. Of Hoffmann „imagination pieces in cal plumb line manner“ were translated in 1814 as “Contes fantastiques” into the French, instead of right-wise as “Contes de la fantaisie”.

Many definitions suggested by literature specialists of the fantastic can be divided after Uwe Durst (* in 1965) roughly in two categories:

Maximum cunning broad definition
The maximum cunning broad definition encloses all telling texts in which fictive world the natural laws are injured. The basic difference to the minimalist beginning consists in the fact that a doubt plays no role with the definition in binnenfiktionalen Tatsächlichkeit of the supernatural.

Thirst further makes a distinction in an ahistorical and in a historical variation of maximalistischer genre definition. Ahistorical all texts to the genre which injure natural laws from the point of view of the today’s natural sciences so also the Bible (H are added. P. Lovecraft), antique epics etc. (Harald Fricke). However, the historical variation calls only such texts fantastic which have originated after the origin of the realistic literature convention (at the beginning of the 18th century) and in their at first realistic world a supernatural event takes place (Louis Vax, Roger Caillois). Both Maximalismus variations can be differentiated in other sub-groups. Thus, for example, Marianne of the fantastic literature also adds texts in which the supernatural event becomes realistically way there-explained at last what is rejected by other theorists.

Minimalist definition
The minimalist definition was represented for the first time by the French Strukturalisten Tzvetan Todorov in a longer literature-scientific work. To Todorov is the fantastic (in contrast to the miraculous where the supernatural is given unquestionably) by the indecision of the implied reader determines. The binnenfiktionale facticity of the miraculous stands in the doubt. As soon as the text causes a decision in favour of a realistic or miraculous classification of the event, he leaves the area of the fantastic. In different texts the reader is not able on account of divergent information given in the text till the end to find out whether the described miraculous intratextuell really exists or is based on a deception of the hero, on a staging by swindlers, drug-taking, insanity odgl.

Todorovs research line was continued among other things by Christine Brooke-Rose (1923-2012) and Thomas. He has put Todorovs indecision criterion on an exact narrative-theoretical basis (macro and microstructural destabilization of the narrative authority as a directorial basis of the fantastic ambivalence). In newer time Uwe Durst with a logical minimalist theory education has come out above all of the Strukturalist. The scientifically based criterion of the supernatural is substituted with him with the literary-convention-conditioned criterion of the miraculous which faces to the supernatural in a relation of relative autonomy. Thirst sees the advantage of the minimalism above all in the terminological specification which also permits an exact description and Terminologisierung of texts which are excluded in the course of the penetration of the minimalist Phantastik concept from the genre and are assigned neighbouring categories.

Important concepts in the Phantastikdiskussion
Tear
The picture of the tear decreases to a much-cited Phantastikdefinition Roger Caillois’. Therefore, the „supernatural reveals himself in the fantastic like a tear in the universal connection. The miracle becomes there a forbidden aggression which looks menacing and breaks the security of the world in which one has held till then the laws for all and unmoveable. It is the impossible which unexpectedly appears in a world from which the impossible has been exiled by definitionem“. The fear criterion in addition represented by Caillois (the fear which the real reader feels supposedly with the reading of a fantastic text determines the fantastic character of the text) was discussed in the literature-scientific discussion controversially and today is academically overtaken. Thus mocked possibly Todorov: If one takes seriously Caillois’ views, „then one would have to conclude from it, […] that the type of a work on the nervous strength of his reader depends.“
Reality system
The concept of the reality system was introduced by Uwe Durst in 2001 in the Phantastikdiskussion and calls the organisation of the laws which are valid within a fictive world. With it above all a demarcation should be produced to the external-literary concept of the reality and the autonomy of the literary reality laws be stressed.
After thirst is the realistic reality system (R) that system which hides his procedure limitation (and with it his immanent Wunderbarkeit) to make itself pretence of an identity with the external-literary reality. Thus the procedure-immanent Wunderbarkeit of an omniscient narrator or the Pan-deterministic causality of symbolic orders are concealed possibly in realistic texts convention-compliant.
However, the miraculous reality system (W) permits the open Inerscheinungtreten of miraculous events (Hellseherei, invisibility, immortality, vampirism etc.). These Wunderbarkeit is marked either intratextuell (in the text, so by the narrator or acting figures) or intertextuell difference to realistic texts becomes (the Wunderbarkeit by the reality system broad evident).
In thirst model the fantastic is between the area R and that of W: The formulation of a coherent reality system is impossible here. The fantastic is therefore a non-system (N) which arises from the mutual negation of the systems R and W.
System jump
Also the concept of the system jump decreases to the works of Uwe Dursts. He calls with it the change of the reality system within a literary text and with it his jump of a spectrum side to the others. Thirst calls such texts mobile, texts without system jump immobil. As an example he states Lewis Carroll’s story Alice in Wonderland. The text changes from realistic (Alice and Cecilia with the picnic) about miraculous (Alice follows the white rabbit in the wonderland) again back in a realistic reality system (Alice awakes from her dream). To the Terminologisierung thirst develops a formula manner of writing in which he confronts the reality system established finally of the syntagmatischen sequence of realitätssystemischer states within the text. The draught of the system jump opens among other things The questions to the classification appropriate for genre of system-jumping texts which set up, in the end, a realistic reality system.
Sequential gap
Hans Dieter Zimmermann has developed a beginning for a theory of the miraculous which he leads back on sequential gaps: In an action line a necessary element is absent, however, the action still takes place what generates the miraculous (Hindurchtreten by a wall without creating before a door). Carpenter’s beginning has been developed by thirst. Since 2007 he distinguishes three types of sequential gaps: syntagmatisch subtractive (how with carpenter; in an action an inalienable element) is absent, syntagmatisch additive (two actions are explained to one single action unity, Pan-Determinismus: sawing a jewellery ring kills their owner) and paradigmatic (a whole action is erased from the paradigm of possible actions and with it become impossible, e.g., leading a war in a fanciful world). Particularly as also in realistic texts sequential gaps seem which form almost a condition of the narrative, the theory of sequential gaps is a central stone in thirst thesis that the fantastic literature pursues a bare lapping of the immanent Wunderbarkeit of the narration and is therefore not the vampire, but the impossibility of the narrative even the real subject of the Phantastik.
Phantastik according to minimalist definition
Procedures
To reach the indecision of the reader, are applied in the text Procedure which destabilise the narrative authority (which wreck authority of the narrator as a guarantor of the told world). Words makes a distinction between macro and microstructural Destable method. First are given if of several narrators (perhaps figures) contradict mutually, make to the lie or the legal incapacity suspicious (how in Theodor Storms of The mould riders). A microstructural procedure is given if the statements of a single narrator are doubted in his own speech, e.g., by Modalisation („it seemed to me“) or grammatical disruption (how in Hanns Heinz Ewers’ The spider). Somebody who does not have his own language completely under control has lost maybe also the control of his mind. In this connection are also protestations not to be crazy to call (how in Edgar Allan Poes The perfidious heart).

Under Alfred Kubin borrowed programmatic title Yes, my dear, we are conservative the Germanist Peter Cersowsky expels as basic politics distance and fate devoutness to varied relations and parallels between fantastic literature and politically conservative or right positions. As an early example he calls Edmund Burke, the founder of the conservatism who helped with his aesthetic considerations centrally in the Gothic Novel and shower history of the 18th and 19th century; just Cersowsky calls the publication occurred in 1904 and translation of the works of Edgar Allan Poe in Germany by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (a central representative of the conservative revolution) as a prelude to a before never seen fullness in fantastic literature in Germany. An in parallel running huge number of technical utopias, from the robot about the Atlantropa project up to the space books Hermann Oberths, are close-knit with the technically oriented Phantastik or early science fiction.

Cersowsky looks out in this regard a continuity about the 1920s; since (humorous) „was missing as the revolution, put aside the 68th her Lukács and killed itself the time with Lovecraft.“ Cersowsky still does not come to the end, Phantastik is inevitably reactionary.

Differently Lars Gustafsson who sees the Phantastik at the example Lovecrafts as radically reactionary – and weddings of Phantastik (and esotericism) linkedly with social backward step; Lothar Baier like Peter Cersowsky contradict this thesis and call on the other hand the element of the border crossing, the tear and the utopia as potentially emancipatory and as a vehicle of more social as technical innovation.

The magic realism is an artistic current which is represented since the 1920s above all in the area of the painting and the literature in some countries of Europe as well as North America and South America. Was taken up and was continued the magic realism later also in the areas of Cinematography and photograph.

The magic realism shows the fusion of real reality (handy, obviously, rationally) and magic reality (hallucinations, dreams). It is the „third reality“, a synthesis from the realities familiar to us. The crossing to the surrealism is fluent.

The concept became for the first time in 1925 from the art critic Franz Roh in his book Post-expressionism, magic Realism: Problems of the newest European painting. uses. He called a postal-expressionist painting style of pictures of an art exhibition in Mannheim 1924. After the appearance of Rohs text in the Spanish magazine Revista de Occidente in 1927 the concept soon found move in the intellectual’s circles of Buenos Aires and was applied after violent discussions in 1960s till the 90s also to parts of the Latin-American literature.

Magic realism in the literature

The magic realism as a literary form appears beginning till the middle of the 20th century in Germany, Italy and in the Flemish and has with the detour over Paris and Spain fast a big influence on the literature in Latin America. Applied on the Latin-American literature the concept became for the first time in 1948 from the Venezuelan Arturo Uslar Pietri. As a real father of the magic-realistic style in Latin America Miguel Á ngel Asturias with his Roman Hombres de maíz (The maize people) is looked from 1949. In this work indigene myths (here of Maya) with the reality, culture and history of Latin America are told from the point the indigenen population. This magic reality view leads to the fact that the legend shows the grounds of the happened as a reaction to the suppression of the Indigenen with the white.

With the preface to his Roman El reino de Estonian mundo written Alejo Carpentier, so to speak, a manifesto of the magic realism. Besides, he separates Latin America strongly from Europe. After him the ability of the experience of wonderfully the real has got lost „to the European“ by the clarification, while myths and minds faith are integrated in Latin America still of course in the everyday life. According to Carpentier the magic realism is natural, not forced; it is the imbedding of the miraculous in the everyday life.

The magic realism mixes the borders between reality and imagination. National culture, mythology, religion, history and geography melt in the texts and are always recognizable. He combines two draughts which are valid in the industrial nations as contradicting: Reality and Mythologie/Phantasie/Magie – however, the thought is that these both can exist for the purposes of a balancing act very well side by side and stand not by force during the conflict. Counterpart of the magic realism is realismo social or social realism.

Demarcation to other styles
In demarcation to the fantastic literature the magic-realistic author does not want with priority that the reader feels fear, doubt or other emotions only cursorily. A balance full of tension is aimed between unconsciously experienced, i.e. to Felt, and with emphatically reserved means to shown real. Besides, will create in the piece of art a world in which the viewer or reader should experience no more strict separation between intellect and sensation. The “magic” mark can vary according to intention of the artist very strongly. The stronger she is, the rather it can come to the mistake with the fantastic literature.

Some authors see narrow correspondence between magic realism and fantasy. During an interview defined genes to wolf the magic realism as follows: „Magic realism is from Spanish-speaking people a written fantasy.“ (“Magic realism is fantasy written by people who speak Spanish.”) sounds Terry Pratchett it is to be said „a polite kind, one would write fantasy“ (“a polite way of saying you write fantasy”) and „for some people more satisfactory“ (“more acceptable to certain people”) to assign himself as an author to the magic realism instead of the fantasy. [4] today’s fantasy authors who consciously search the nearness to the magic-realistic style are, e.g., Liliana Bodoc in Latin America and Kai Meyer in Germany.

Alejo Carpentier sees a contrast of the magic realism to European styles like the surrealism which must generate the miraculous to Carpentier artificially. Against it the magic realism in Latin America is an everyday life and appears in special manner in the integration of the miracle in the everyday life (e.g., god’s myths).

 

All Age fantasy: Fantastic novels and stories, the readers on the other side from age limits respond. Written originally rather for a young audience, this literature inspires, in the meantime, more and more adult readers, because the authors tie together exciting adventures with multi-layered entertainment and a fantastic atmosphere. Known works: Harry Potter of Joanne K. Rowling, B sharp Dark of material of Philip Pullman, Artemis Fowl von Eoin Colfer.
Humorous fantasy: Parodistic or ironic contact with fantasy motives or classical legends and myths. Known works: Zamonien cycle of Walter Moers, disc world cycle of Terry Pratchett, demon’s row of Robert Asprin, The nomad’s God of Gerd Scherm, Krishna cycle of Lyons Sprague de camp.
Pseudo documentation: Fictive non-fiction books with fantastic contents. Known works: Half knight’s animal lives and plant lives of Kurt Halbritter, fantastic animal beings and where they are to be found by Newt Scamander alias Joanne K. Rowling, black fog of Michael Crichton.
Pseudo-historical fantasy: New interpretation of an epoch by Einflechtung of fantastic elements. The novels very well investigated in the ideal case play not in foreign fictive imagination worlds, but on our earth in a historical time (often to the Middle Ages or a prehistoric time) in which the faith in magic and magic was widespread or had even a high value. The authors often fall back on traditional legends and legends or on historical events or people. Known works: At the court of the solar king of Annemarie Desplat-Duc, Dr. Faustus trilogy of Kai Meyer, The fire riders of his Majesty von Naomi Novik, Avalon row of Marion Zimmer Bradley.
Social fantasy: The fantasy literature which lays her main focus on social-critical and society-critical subjects as well as possible political utopias like the anarchism. Known works: Earth lake row of Ursula K. Le Guin.
Fantasy beyond the literature
Film
Also the cinema and the television has already turned of the more often to the genre, even if relatively rare as that of the Science Fiction. Apart from the early fairy tale films, some fantasy filming of Walt Disney as for example The secret of the execrated cave (1959) and the first sign trick version of the cult novel of the same name man of the rings (the USA, in 1978) real fantasy material was taken up only from the 1980s. At that time film classics originated like ex-approx. Li borer (the USA / GB, in 1981), fight of the titans (GB, in 1981), The Drachentöter (the USA, in 1981), The dark crystal (the USA / GB, in 1982), legend (GB, in 1985) and The trip in the labyrinth (GB / USA, in 1986). It is striking that none of the successful fantasy fiction was filmed; man of the rings was valid after the Bakshi film fruitless in the film cash as a too difficult material, other novels apparently than too bad presentation. The only exception remained a filming of the novel The infinite history (the D/USA, in 1984) from Michael end. With the film Willow (the USA, in 1988) tried producer George Lucas his SF success with star War (the USA to repeat in 1977) also in the fantasy area what remained, however, kept to him.

Also in the 1990s real fantasy films remained rare; Dragonheart (the USA, in 1996) achieved bigger success. Instead, the television discovered the genre for itself and created several fantasy series, possibly Robin Hood (GB, in 1984-1986), Hercules (the USA / NZ, in 1995-1999), Xena (the USA / NZ, in 1995-2001) and Charmed – enchanting witches (the USA, in 1998-2006).

Finally, in the 2000s director Peter Jackson ventured on the filming (the NZ/USA, in 2001) from man of the rings and harvested with the film trilogy a great success in the film cashes. Together with the also successful Harry Potter’s filmings he created with it a base for other filming plans. Thus Cornelia Funk’s ink heart and the Narnia row of C also have. See Lewis the way on the canvas found.

Board games and role plays
Fantasy served early as a background for numerous board games, play books and above all role plays (Pen-& Paper role plays and live role plays). Just in the course of the role play wave – released from the market leader Dungeon and Dragons (D&D) in the 1980s and 1990s – interaction with the fantasy literature arose; some authors found about the role play to the fantasy literature and vice versa. Besides, some role plays were processed literarily, so that possibly the dragon’s lance fiction by Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman or the Forgotten Realms row from R. A. Salvatore originated. The fantasy-play books which are looked as a precursor of the Textadventures attained particular importance; among the rest, were known lonesome Wolf von Joe Dever and the Fighting fantasy row by Steve Jackson.

In the late 1990s years the fantasy topic penetrated into other play areas. Above all the collective card game Magic: The Gathering celebrated success, drew off some players from the classical role play and opened for at the same time other people who had up to now no access to the fantasy, this genre. After the new fantasy wave in the course of the Tolkien’s filming in the 2000s live role plays and classical Pen-& Paper role play became clubbable, indeed, the sales of the role play publishing companies are falling for many years.

Computer games
In the area of the computer game fantasy motives were always used as generally all fantastic genres have found entrance in the computer game culture. Fantasy materials were taken up over and over again by the early Textadventure as for example Guild of Thieves of the company Magnetic Scrolls up to early role play conversions like Ultima of the company Origin. With the Quest typical for computer game there originated an archetypal narrative structure which found the way back later again in the fantasy literature.

In the 1980s several famous fantasy computer games, possibly The originated Laying of Zelda, Final fantasy, Phantasy star, Dungeon master, already mentioned Ultima or The Bard’s to the valley which are partially continued till this day. In the 1990s reached above all the conversions of the D&D role plays (possibly champions of Krynn or Eye of the Beholder), the fantasy parody Simon the Sorcerer, the role plays of country of truck, heir of the earth and the northern country trilogy as well as the strategy play Dungeon Keeper bigger fame. In the 2000s more and more detailed worlds allowed more and more polished graphics and higher arithmetic achievement of the computers, so that today’s computer games reach an unbelievable extent. Here as landmarks the plays Diablo and Dungeon are valid victories, the strategy play Warcraft and the role plays World of Warcraft, Baldur’s for gate, Neverwinter Nights, Gothic, The Elder Scrolls, Sacred, Dark Age of Camelot and Concocting. The filmings of man of the rings and the Harry Potter’s row also led to conversions in the computer game area, like generally a narrower and narrower dovetailing by literature, cinema and computer game is to be observed. Thus the fantasy play Dungeon became victories of director Uwe Boll in 2007 cinematically as swords of the king – Dungeon victories moved.

Music
With Filk there exists own music direction and music culture whose songs tell stories from and about fantasy and science fiction literature and Sc media. Besides fantasy finds itself in the progressive rock and particularly in the Heavy Metal. Although the concept Fantasy Metal exists, this is seldom used, because subjects from the fantasy can be found in virtually all Metal styles, particularly in the power and in the Epic Metal. Very much are liked with Metal albums also record cover with fantasy motives. These are used often even with albums and tape which do not deal, otherwise, with fantasy subjects. As a tape with a partly strong folk impact are to be called above all Summoning, Ensiferum, Blind Guardian, Rhapsody of Fire and Manowar. Also Symphonic Metal of tape like Nightwish or Within Temptation as well as Xandria or the singer Tarja use fantasy elements in her songs

Painting
The modern fantasy painting has in the western society her precursors in the antique and medieval Bestiarien and in the work of Hieronymus Bosch (in 1460-1516). Many of him shown picture subjects – like varied human representations in connection with fauna and flora, animated objects and playful stylings – returned thematically in the fantasy art of the late 20th century. There is monster and impossible structures, weird sceneries as well as a feeling caused by the viewer of the unreal which often falls back on style elements of the surrealism and the magic realism.

The painter Johann Heinrich Füssli and his successor William Blake turned in the 18th century in revolutionary manner to fantastic, mythological and absurd subjects, and are inspiring till this day for fantasy and Gothic painting. The first big blossom experienced this kind of the painting in the Victorian epoch, as a big number of fictive stories, often in the form of the chivalrous romance popular since the romanticism, a revival of the medieval höfischen novel, infers with more advanced painting technologies and printings to a wave of illustrated books for the population of English-speaking countries led.

Important fantasy painters are Luis Royo, Frank Frazetta, Boris Vallejo, Roger Dean, Patrick Woodroffe, Alan Lee, John Howe, Ted Nasmith, Chris Foss as well as the brothers Greg and Tim.


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