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Addiction and Responsibility

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Jeffrey Poland, George Graham, "Addiction and Responsibility"
English | 2011 | ISBN-10: 0262015501 | 320 pages | PDF | 18 MB

Addiction and Responsibility
Addictive behavior threatens not just the addict's happiness and health but also the welfare and well-being of others. It represents a loss of self-control and a variety of other cognitive impairments and behavioral deficits. An addict may say, "I couldn't help myself." But questions arise: are we responsible for our addictions? And what responsibilities do others have to help us? This volume offers a range of perspectives on addiction and responsibility and how the two are bound together. Distinguished contributors — from theorists to clinicians, from neuroscientists and psychologists to philosophers and legal scholars — discuss these questions in essays using a variety of conceptual and investigative tools.

Some contributors offer models of addiction-related phenomena, including theories of incentive sensitization, ego-depletion, and pathological affect; others address such traditional philosophical questions as free will and agency, mind-body, and other minds. Two essays, written by scholars who were themselves addicts, attempt to integrate first-person phenomenological accounts with the third-person perspective of the sciences. Contributors distinguish among moral responsibility, legal responsibility, and the ethical responsibility of clinicians and researchers. Taken together, the essays offer a forceful argument that we cannot fully understand addiction if we do not also understand responsibility.

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From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation

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From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation by Umberto Eco, Anthony Oldcorn
English | 2014 | ISBN: 0674049187 | 640 pages | PDF | 5 MB

From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation
The way we create and organize knowledge is the theme of From the Tree to the Labyrinth, a major achievement by one of the world's foremost thinkers on language and interpretation. Umberto Eco begins by arguing that our familiar system of classification by genus and species derives from the Neo-Platonist idea of a "tree of knowledge." He then moves to the idea of the dictionary, which-like a tree whose trunk anchors a great hierarchy of branching categories-orders knowledge into a matrix of definitions. In Eco's view, though, the dictionary is too rigid: it turns knowledge into a closed system.

A more flexible organizational scheme is the encyclopedia, which-instead of resembling a tree with finite branches-offers a labyrinth of never-ending pathways. Presenting knowledge as a network of interlinked relationships, the encyclopedia sacrifices humankind's dream of possessing absolute knowledge, but in compensation we gain the freedom to pursue an infinity of new connections and meanings.

Moving effortlessly from analyses of Aristotle and James Joyce to the philosophical difficulties of telling dogs from cats, Eco demonstrates time and again his inimitable ability to bridge ancient, medieval, and modern modes of thought. From the Tree to the Labyrinth is a brilliant illustration of Eco's longstanding argument that problems of interpretation can be solved only in historical context.
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Pharmageddon

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David Healy, "Pharmageddon"
English | ISBN: 0520270983, 0520275764 | 2012 | 328 pages | PDF | 20 MB

Pharmageddon
This searing indictment, David Healy's most comprehensive and forceful argument against the pharmaceuticalization of medicine, tackles problems in health care that are leading to a growing number of deaths and disabilities. Healy, who was the first to draw attention to the now well-publicized suicide-inducing side effects of many anti-depressants, attributes our current state of affairs to three. Key factors: product rather than process patents on drugs, the classification of certain drugs as prescription-only, and industry-controlled drug trials. These developments have tied the survival of pharmaceutical companies to the development of blockbuster drugs, so that they must overhype benefits and deny real hazards. Healy further explains why these trends have basically ended the possibility of universal health care in the United States and elsewhere around the world. He concludes with suggestions for reform of our currently corrupted evidence-based medical system.
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1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half

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Stephen R. Bown, "1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half"
English | 2012-02-14 | ISBN: 0312616120, 1553655567 | 304 pages | EPUB, MOBI | 5 MB

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half
In 1494, award-winning author Stephen R. Bown tells the untold story of the explosive feud between monarchs, clergy, and explorers that split the globe between Spain and Portugal and made the world's oceans a battleground.

When Columbus triumphantly returned from America to Spain in 1493, his discoveries inflamed an already-smouldering conflict between Spain's renowned monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal's João II. Which nation was to control the world's oceans? To quell the argument, Pope Alexander VI-the notorious Rodrigo Borgia-issued a proclamation laying the foundation for the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, an edict that created an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean dividing the entire known (and unknown) world between Spain and Portugal.

Just as the world's oceans were about to be opened by Columbus's epochal voyage, the treaty sought to limit the seas to these two favored Catholic nations. The edict was to have a profound influence on world history: it propelled Spain and Portugal to superpower status, steered many other European nations on a collision course, and became the central grievance in two centuries of international espionage, piracy, and warfare.

The treaty also began the fight for "the freedom of the seas"-the epic struggle to determine whether the world's oceans, and thus global commerce, would be controlled by the decree of an autocrat or be open to the ships of any nation-a distinctly modern notion, championed in the early seventeenth century by the Dutch legal theorist Hugo Grotius, whose arguments became the foundation of international law.

At the heart of one of the greatest international diplomatic and political agreements of the last five centuries were the strained relationships and passions of a handful of powerful individuals. They were linked by a shared history, mutual animosity, and personal obligations-quarrels, rivalries, and hatreds that dated back decades. Yet the struggle ultimately stemmed from a young woman's determination to defy tradition and the king, and to choose her own husband.
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Theories of Case

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Miriam Butt, "Theories of Case"
2006 | ISBN-10: 052179322X | 272 pages | PDF | 1 MB

Theories of Case
Case, a system which marks the relationships between words in a sentence, is fundamental to every language. Looking at how different theories of syntax have accounted for the distribution of case across languages, this accessible 2006 textbook introduces the various approaches to case that have been proposed in modern linguistics. Clearly organised into topics, it provides beginning students with a solid understanding of the ideas behind the development of theories of case. For the more advanced reader, it presents theories that have been formulated about the interaction between case morphology, argument structure, grammatical relations and semantics, and offers a detailed cross-theoretical discussion of how these are motivated. Each chapter contains practical exercises, encouraging students to engage with the ideas discussed. Drawing on data from a wide range of languages and pooling together a variety of perspectives, is essential reading for all those studying this important area of linguistics.
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Art of Reasoning with Symbolic Logic

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David Kelley, "Art of Reasoning with Symbolic Logic"
1990 | ISBN-10: 0393959139 | 569 pages | Djvu | 4 MB

Art of Reasoning with Symbolic Logic
An inviting alternative to traditional texts in introductory logic, The Art of Reasoning is widely acclaimed for its conversational tone and accessible exposition of rigorous logical concepts.
The Third Edition has been meticulously updated and continues the successful pedagogical approach of the two previous editions, guiding students through the fundamental elements of formal deductive logic, classification and definition, fallacies, basic argument analysis, inductive generalization, statistical reasoning, and explanation.
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Physical Theory and its Interpretation

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Physical Theory and its Interpretation
English | Physics | 7. November 2006 | ISBN-10: 1402048750 | 283 pages | Pdf | 2 mb
The essays in this volume were written by leading researchers on classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, quantum theory, and relativity.

Physical Theory and its Interpretation
They detail central topics in the foundations of physics, including the role of symmetry principles in classical and quantum physics, Einstein's hole argument in general relativity, quantum mechanics and special relativity, quantum correlations, quantum logic, and quantum probability and information.
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Don’t Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership

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Wesley K. Clark, "Don't Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership"
2014 | ISBN-10: 161039433X | 272 pages | PDF, EPUB | 5 + 1 MB

Don’t Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership
With the end of the Cold War came not the end of history, but the end of America's sense of its strategic purpose in the world. Then, after a decade of drift, the US was violently dragged back into international conflict. Its armed forces responded magnificently but its leaders' objectives were substantially flawed. We fought the wrong war-twice-for reasons that were opaque, and few American citizens understood the cause for which their sons and daughters were fighting and dying.

War is a poor substitute for strategic vision, and decisions made in the heat of imminent conflict are often limited by the emotions of the moment. In Don't Wait for the Next War, Wesley K. Clark, a retired four-star general of the US army and former Democratic candidate for president, presents a compelling argument for continued American global leadership and the basis on which it can succeed-a new American strategy. America needs both new power and deeper perspective. The platform for American leadership is to use America's energy resources to spark sustainable economic growth, building new strength to deal with pressing domestic issues like the deficit as well as the longer term challenges to US security-terrorism, cyber threats, the next financial crisis, China's rising power, and climate change.

Such a strategy is not only achievable but essential, and it is urgently needed. This is the true test of American leadership for the next two decades, but it must start now, so America has the power and vision to deal with the acute crises that will inevitably come-in the Mideast, Europe, or Asia.
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Don’t Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership

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Wesley K. Clark, "Don't Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership"
2014 | ISBN-10: 161039433X | 272 pages | PDF, EPUB | 5 + 1 MB

Don’t Wait for the Next War: A Strategy for American Growth and Global Leadership
With the end of the Cold War came not the end of history, but the end of America's sense of its strategic purpose in the world. Then, after a decade of drift, the US was violently dragged back into international conflict. Its armed forces responded magnificently but its leaders' objectives were substantially flawed. We fought the wrong war-twice-for reasons that were opaque, and few American citizens understood the cause for which their sons and daughters were fighting and dying.

War is a poor substitute for strategic vision, and decisions made in the heat of imminent conflict are often limited by the emotions of the moment. In Don't Wait for the Next War, Wesley K. Clark, a retired four-star general of the US army and former Democratic candidate for president, presents a compelling argument for continued American global leadership and the basis on which it can succeed-a new American strategy. America needs both new power and deeper perspective. The platform for American leadership is to use America's energy resources to spark sustainable economic growth, building new strength to deal with pressing domestic issues like the deficit as well as the longer term challenges to US security-terrorism, cyber threats, the next financial crisis, China's rising power, and climate change.

Such a strategy is not only achievable but essential, and it is urgently needed. This is the true test of American leadership for the next two decades, but it must start now, so America has the power and vision to deal with the acute crises that will inevitably come-in the Mideast, Europe, or Asia.
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The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Hanafi School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire

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The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Hanafi School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization) by Guy Burak
English | December 9, 2014 | ISBN: 110709027X | ASIN: B00OUWJKN2 | 289 Pages | EPUB/MOBI/AZW3/PDF (Converted) | 6 MB
The Second Formation of Islamic Law is the first book to deal with the rise of an official school of law in the post-Mongol period. The author explores how the Ottoman dynasty shaped the structure and doctrine of a particular branch within the Hanafi school of law.

The Second Formation of Islamic Law: The Hanafi School in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire
In addition, the book examines the opposition of various jurists, mostly from the empire's Arab provinces, to this development. By looking at the emergence of the concept of an official school of law, the book seeks to call into question the grand narratives of Islamic legal history that tend to see the nineteenth century as the major rupture. Instead, an argument is formed that some of the supposedly nineteenth-century developments, such as the codification of Islamic law, are rooted in much earlier centuries. In so doing, the book offers a new periodization of Islamic legal history in the eastern Islamic lands.
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