Tag Archives: Biological

Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction

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Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
English | Physics | 5. September 2008 | ISBN-10: 1405162228 | 400 pages | pdf | 10 mb
Powder diffraction is one of the primary techniques used to characterize materials, providing structural information even when the crystallite size is too small for single crystal x-ray diffraction methods.

Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
There has been a significant increase in the application of powder diffraction in recent years, both in research and manufacturing, fuelled by improved instrumentation, data processing and awareness of the information that can be obtained. Powder diffraction allows for rapid, non-destructive analysis of multi-component mixtures without the need for extensive sample preparation. This gives laboratories the ability to quickly analyse unknown materials and perform materials characterization in such fields as chemistry, materials science, geology, mineralogy, forensics, archaeology, and the biological and pharmaceutical sciences.

This book provides a concise introduction to modern powder diffraction methods with particular emphasis on practical aspects. It covers the background theory of diffraction in a form approachable by those with an undergraduate degree. Whilst individual chapters are written as stand alone sections, the text is sufficiently focused so that it can be read in its entirety by the non-specialist who wants to gain a rapid overview of what they can do with modern powder diffraction methods.
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“Advanced Elastomers: Technology, Properties and Applications” ed. by Anna Boczkowska

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"Advanced Elastomers: Technology, Properties and Applications" ed. by Anna Boczkowska
InTeOpP | 2012 | ISBN: 9535107399 9789535107392 | 412 pages | PDF | 55 MB
This book provides an extensive overview of current trends in the area of elastomers and their composites from the chapters contributed by internationally recognized specialists. The book deals with novel synthesis, modelling and experimental methods in elastomers. This book addresses to industrial and academic researchers in the fields of physical, chemical, biological sciences and engineering.

“Advanced Elastomers: Technology, Properties and Applications” ed. by Anna Boczkowska
Contents include: new approach to crosslinking, liquid crystal elastomers, nanocomposites, smart elastomers, elastomers in microelectronics and microfluidics, elastomers in cement concrete and mortar, experimental testing and modelling.
Each section demonstrates how enhancements in materials, processes and characterization techniques can improve performance in the field of engineering. The book provides a unique opportunity to discover the latest research on elastomer advances from laboratories around the world.

Contents
Preface
Section 1: New Approach to Elastomer Cross I inking
1 Aspects Regarding Radiation Cross I inking of Elastomers
Section 2: Liquid Crystal Elastomers
2 Monitoring the Contractile Properties of Optically Patterned Liquid Crystal Based Elastomers
3 Polysiloxane Side-Chain Azobenzene-Containing Liquid Single Crystal Elastomers for Photo-Active Artificial Muscle-Like Actuators
Section 3: Elastomer Nanocomposites
4 Rubber Clay Nanocomposites
5 Pigment and Dye Modified Fillers as Elastomeric Additives
Section 4: Smart Elastomers
6 Microstructure and Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomers
7 Thermo-Shrinkable Elastomers
Section 5: Elastomers in Microelectronics and Microflu id ics
8 Elastomer Application in Microsystem and Microflu id ics
9 Elasto meric Electronics: A Microflu id ic Approach
10 Use of Silicone Elastomer-Based Microfluidic Devices and Systems in Reproductive Technologies
Section 6: Elastomers in Cement Concrete and Mortar
11 Technology, Properties and Application of NRL Elastomers
Section 7: Experimental Testing and Modelling of Elastomer Properties
12 Transmittance and Reflectance of an Imprinted Cholesteric Elastomer During a Segregation Process
13 Anelastic Behavior in Filled Elastomers Under Harmonic Loading Using Distributed Rate-Dependent Elasto-Slide Elements
14 Modelling Friction and Abrasive Wear of Elastomers
15 The Significance of Equi-Biaxial Bubble Inflation in Determining Elasto meric Fatigue Properties
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The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation

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The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation by Angela Tinwell
2014 | ISBN: 146658694X | English | 236 pages | PDF | 11 MB

The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation
Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny Valley phenomenon when designing human-like characters in digital applications.

In this book, the author provides a synopsis of literature about the Uncanny Valley phenomenon and explains how it was introduced into contemporary thought. She then presents her theories on its possible psychological causes based on a series of empirical studies. The book focuses on how aspects of facial expression and speech can be manipulated to overcome the Uncanny Valley in character design.

presents a novel theory that goes beyond previous research in that the cause of the Uncanny Valley is based on a perceived lack of empathy in a character. This book makes an original, scholarly contribution to our current understanding of the Uncanny Valley phenomenon and fills a gap in the literature by assessing the biological and social roots of the Uncanny Valley and its implications for computer-graphics animation.
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Glycopolymers: Synthesis and Applications

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Ravin Narain, "Glycopolymers: Synthesis and Applications"
2014 | ISBN-10: 1909030813 | 180 pages | PDF | 6 MB

Glycopolymers: Synthesis and Applications
Glycopolymers have received considerable interest in recent years due to their increasing potential applications in material science and biomedicine. With better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in biological systems and with recent advances in organic and carbohydrate chemistry, the design and synthesis of glycopolymers have become simpler where significant research efforts have been carried out towards the fabrication of advanced glyco-polymeric architectures for improved performance. This book provides an update on the recent advances on the synthesis of glycopolymers, their characterisations, their biological properties and their applications. The first objective of this book is to provide the readers a detailed overview about the synthesis of glycopolymers via several modern polymerisation techniques. The characterisation of these materials and their solution properties are also discussed. In addition to this, the conjugation of glycopolymers to different types of biomacromolecules are discussed. The second objective of this book is to provide the readers a detailed overview of the applications glycopolymers. In addition, the biological properties of the glycopolymers as a function of the types of carbohydrates attached, the polymer architectures and compositions are elaborated. This update will provide a quick reference to students and researchers working in both academia and industry.
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“Advanced Topics on Crystal Growth” ed. by Sukarno Olavo Ferreira

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"Advanced Topics on Crystal Growth" ed. by Sukarno Olavo Ferreira
InTeOpP | 2013 | ISBN: 9535110101 9789535110101 | 432 pages | PDF | 41 MB
The objective of this book is not to cover all areas of crystal growth but just present, as specified in the title, important selected topics, as applied to organic and inorganic systems. All authors have been selected for being key researchers in their field of specialization, working in important universities and research labs around the world. This book is mostly recommended for students working in the field of crystal growth and for scientists and engineers in the fields of crystalline materials, crystal engineering and the industrial applications of crystallization processes.

“Advanced Topics on Crystal Growth” ed. by Sukarno Olavo Ferreira
Crystal growth is the key step of a great number of very important applications. The development of new devices and products, from the traditional microelectronic industry to pharmaceutical industry and many others, depends on crystallization processes.
The first section is mainly devoted to biological systems and covers topics like proteins, bone and ice crystallization.
The second section brings some applications to inorganic systems and describes more general growth techniques like chemical vapor crystallization and electrodeposition.

Contents
Preface
Section 1 Biological and Other Organic Systems
1 Proteins and Their Ligands: Their Importance and Howto Crystallize Them
2 Purification of Erythromycin by Antisolvent Crystallization orAzeotropic Evaporative Crystallization
3 Crystal Growth of Inorganic and Biomediated Carbonates and Phosphates
4 Direction Controlled Growth of Organic Single Crystals by Novel Growth Methods
5 Characterizations of Functions of Biological Materials Having Controlling-Ability Against Ice Crystal Growth
6 The Mineralization of Bone and Its Analogies with Other Hard Tissues
7 Modeling Ice Crystal Formation of Water in Biological System
8 Crystallization: From the Conformerto the Crystal
Section 2 Inorganic Systems
9 Chemical Vapor Transport Reactions-Methods, Materials, Modeling
10 Growth and Development of Sapphire Crystal for LED Applications
11 Crystal Growth by Electrodeposition with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Emulsion
12 Inorganic Nanostructures Decorated Graphene
13 Metal Chalcogenides Tetrahedral Molecular Clusters: Crystal Engineering and Properties
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“Acoustic Waves: From Microdevices to Helioseismology” ed. by Marco G. Beghi

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"Acoustic Waves: From Microdevices to Helioseismology" ed. by Marco G. Beghi
InTeOpP | 2011 | ISBN: 9533075724 9789533075723 | 665 pages | PDF | 51 MB
This book presents several aspects of the active research ongoing in the field of Acoustic Waves. Theoretical efforts are leading to a deeper understanding of phenomena, also in complicated environments like the solar surface boundary. A whole class of widespread microdevices, including filters and sensors, is based on the behaviour of acoustic waves propagating in thin layers. The search for better performances is driving to new materials for these devices, and to more refined tools for their analysis.

“Acoustic Waves: From Microdevices to Helioseismology” ed. by Marco G. Beghi
Contents
Part 1 Theoretical and Numerical Investigations of Acoustic Waves
1 Analysis of Acoustic Wave in Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Media Using Finite Element Method
2 Topological Singularities in Acoustic Fields due to Absorption of a Crystal
3 An Operational Approach to the Acoustic Analogy Equations
4 Exact Solutions Expressible in Hyperbolic and Jacobi Elliptic Functions of Some Important Equations of Ion-Acoustic Waves
5 A coustic Wave
Part 2 Acoustic Waves as Investigative Tools
6 Acoustic Waves: A Probe for the Elastic Properties of Films
7 Evaluation Method for Anisotropic Drilling Characteristics of the Formation by Using Acoustic Wave Information
8 Machinery Faults Detection Using Acoustic Emission Signal
9 Compensation of Ultrasound Attenuation in Photoacoustic Imaging
10 Low Frequency Acoustic Devices for Viscoelastic Complex Media Characterization
11 Modeling of Biological Interfacial Processes Using Thickness-Shear Mode Sensors
12 Analysis of Biological Acoustic Waves by Means of the Phase-Sensitivity Technique
13 Photoacoustic Technique Applied to Skin Research: Characterization of Tissue, Topically Applied Products and Transdermal Drug Delivery
14 Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Ionosphere During Solar Eclipse Events
Part 3 Acoustic Waves as Manipulative Tools
15 Use of Acoustic Waves for Pulsating Water Jet Generation
16 Molecular Desorption by Laser-Driven Acoustic Waves: Analytical Applications and Physical Mechanisms
17 Excitation of Periodical Shock Waves in Solid-State Optical Media (Yb:YAG, Glass) at SBS of Focused Low-Coherent Pump Radiation: Structure Changes, Features of Lasing
18 An Optimal Distribution of Actuatorsin Active Beam Vibration: Some Aspects, Theoretical Considerations
Part 4 Acoustic Wave Based Microdevices
19 Multilayered Structure as a Novel Material for Surface Acoustic Wave Devices: Physical Insight
20 SAW Parameters Analysis and Equivalent Circuit of SAW Device
21 Sources of Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion in Bulk Acoustic Wave Devices: A Phenomenological Approach
22 Shear Mode Piezoelectric Thin Film Resonators
23 Polymer Coated Rayleigh SAW and STW Resonators for Gas Sensor Applications
24 Ultrananocrystalline Diamond as Material for Surface Acoustic Wave Devices
25 Aluminum Nitride (AIN) Film Based Acoustic Devices: Material Synthesis and Device Fabrication
26 Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment
27 Applications of In-Fiber Acousto-Optic Devices
28 Surface Acoustic Waves and Nano-Electromechanical Systems
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Seed Oil: Biological Properties, Health Benefits and Commercial Applications

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Seed Oil: Biological Properties, Health Benefits and Commercial Applications by Alexis Varnham
English | 2014 | ISBN: 1634630564 | 1019 pages | PDF | 3 MB

Seed Oil: Biological Properties, Health Benefits and Commercial Applications
The importance of fats for humans, animals and plants lies in their high content of energy. In addition, fats allow humans and animals to consume fat-soluble vitamins and provide them with essential fatty acids (FAs), which are indispensable because their bodies are unable to synthesize themselves. Vegetable oils are used for many food and industrial purposes. Although a wide variety of sources of vegetable oils, global consumption is dominated by palm, soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils. In recent years there has been development of underexploited promising plant species as a source of dietary or specialty oils. Many of them contain significant quantities of oils and/or a high proportion of nutritionally, medicinally or industrially desirable FAs. This book discusses the biological properties, health benefits and commercial applications on seed oils.
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Understanding Immunology, 3rd Edition

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Understanding Immunology, 3rd Edition (Cell and Molecular Biology in Action) by Peter Wood
English | 2011 | ISBN: 0273730681 | 392 pages | PDF | 21,4 MB

Understanding Immunology, 3rd Edition
Understanding Immunology is a well-established introduction to this complex subject for readers with no previous exposure. It is aimed primarily at undergraduates in biological sciences, biomedical sciences and medicine. The selection and order of topic coverage is designed to instruct effectively, and a variety of boxed examples add depth and historical context for those readers wanting to go beyond the essentials. The first part of the book (Chapters 1 to 11) takes students through the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and describes the molecules, cells and tissues of the immune system that provide protection against a wide variety of pathogens. It also describes how mankind has utilised the immune system, from the development of vaccines to the production of reagents for use in the clinic and laboratory. The final four chapters describe how the immune system operates in disease situations such as allergy, autoimmunity and transplantation. This third edition is revised to cover the latest experimental and clinical changes in the subject, particularly those in the development of lymphocytes; the different types of CD4 helper T cells; the use of antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies, as experimental and clinical tools; and immunological tolerance. Dr. Peter Wood is a Lecturer in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester. He has over 20 years of teaching experience, both in the UK and in the USA, and is widely published in the literature. His current research interest is the role of cytokines in the development of diabetes.
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Recent Advances in Redox Active Plant and Microbial Products: From Basic Chemistry to Widespread Applications in Medicine

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Recent Advances in Redox Active Plant and Microbial Products: From Basic Chemistry to Widespread Applications in Medicine and Agriculture by Claus Jacob and Gilbert Kirsch
English | 2014 | ISBN: 9401789525 | 482 pages | PDF | 13,2 MB

Recent Advances in Redox Active Plant and Microbial Products: From Basic Chemistry to Widespread Applications in Medicine
Nature endows us with a treasure chest of Green Gold full of amazing redox-active' substances which interfere with numerous biological processes in our own body, in animals, bacteria, fungi and plants. Whilst such natural products are all around and also in us, we still do not fully understand how these compounds actually work. This book attempts to resolve some of the mysteries and riddles associated with such products. Written by more than thirty international experts from academia and industry, it places a focus on modern developments in this field and considers such natural products from various angles, from their isolation and characterization all along to product development and commercialization. Throughout, the reader will be confronted with modern approaches which enable the efficient identification and isolation of new natural products, help to elucidate their mode(s) of action and permit practical uses in Medicine, Cosmetics, Agriculture, Industry and as functional foods.
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Understanding Developmental Language Disorders: From Theory to Practice

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Understanding Developmental Language Disorders: From Theory to Practice by Courtenay Frazier Norbury and J. Bruce Tomblin
English | 2008-06-27 | ISBN: 1841696668, 1841696676 | PDF | 248 pages | 3 MB

Understanding Developmental Language Disorders: From Theory to Practice
Developmental language disorders (DLD) occur when a child fails to develop his or her native language often for no apparent reason. Delayed development of speech and/or language is one of the most common reasons for parents of preschool children to seek the advice of their family doctor. Although some children rapidly improve, others have more persistent language difficulties. These long-term deficits can adversely affect academic progress, social relationships and mental well-being.

Although DLDs are common, we are still a long way from understanding what causes them and how best to intervene. Understanding Developmental Language Disorders summarises the recent research developments in genetics and neuroimaging studies, assessment techniques and treatment studies to provide an overview of all aspects of DLD. The book investigates the possible genetic and biological causes of the disorder, how best to assess children's language skills to identify when and where communication breakdown occurs, what the long-term outcomes are for children who grow up with DLD, overlaps between DLD and other childhood disorders such as dyslexia and autism and how best to treat children with the disorder. Each chapter is written by a leading authority in the field in a format accessible to researchers, clinicians and families alike.

This book, with its focus on both theory and practice, will be invaluable to students and researchers of speech-language pathology, psychology, psychiatry, linguistics and education. It will also be of interest to practicing speech-language pathologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, educational psychologists, and teachers and parents of children with developmental language disorders.
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