Tag Archives: Cognitive

Making Space: How the Brain Knows Where Things Are

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Jennifer M. Groh, "Making Space: How the Brain Knows Where Things Are"
English | ISBN: 0674863216 | 2014 | 218 pages | PDF | 5 MB

Making Space: How the Brain Knows Where Things Are
Knowing where things are seems effortless. Yet our brains devote tremendous computational power to figuring out the simplest details about spatial relationships. Going to the grocery store or finding our cell phone requires sleuthing and coordination across different sensory and motor domains. Making Space" traces this mental detective work to explain how the brain creates our sense of location. But it goes further, to make the case that spatial processing permeates all our cognitive abilities, and that the brain s systems for thinking about space may be the systems of thought itself. Our senses measure energy in the form of light, sound, and pressure on the skin, and our brains evaluate these measurements to make inferences about objects and boundaries. Jennifer Groh describes how eyes detect electromagnetic radiation, how the brain can locate sounds by measuring differences of less than one one-thousandth of a second in how long they take to reach each ear, and how the ear s balance organs help us monitor body posture and movement. The brain synthesizes all this neural information so that we can navigate three-dimensional space. But the brain s work doesn t end there. Spatial representations do double duty in aiding memory and reasoning. This is why it is harder to remember how to get somewhere if someone else is driving, and why, if we set out to do something and forget what it was, returning to the place we started can jog our memory. In making space the brain uses powers we did not know we have."
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Addiction and Responsibility

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Jeffrey Poland, George Graham, "Addiction and Responsibility"
English | 2011 | ISBN-10: 0262015501 | 320 pages | PDF | 18 MB

Addiction and Responsibility
Addictive behavior threatens not just the addict's happiness and health but also the welfare and well-being of others. It represents a loss of self-control and a variety of other cognitive impairments and behavioral deficits. An addict may say, "I couldn't help myself." But questions arise: are we responsible for our addictions? And what responsibilities do others have to help us? This volume offers a range of perspectives on addiction and responsibility and how the two are bound together. Distinguished contributors — from theorists to clinicians, from neuroscientists and psychologists to philosophers and legal scholars — discuss these questions in essays using a variety of conceptual and investigative tools.

Some contributors offer models of addiction-related phenomena, including theories of incentive sensitization, ego-depletion, and pathological affect; others address such traditional philosophical questions as free will and agency, mind-body, and other minds. Two essays, written by scholars who were themselves addicts, attempt to integrate first-person phenomenological accounts with the third-person perspective of the sciences. Contributors distinguish among moral responsibility, legal responsibility, and the ethical responsibility of clinicians and researchers. Taken together, the essays offer a forceful argument that we cannot fully understand addiction if we do not also understand responsibility.

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What’s Good About Anger? Putting Your Anger to Work for Good, 2nd edition

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What's Good About Anger? Putting Your Anger to Work for Good, 2nd edition By Ted Griffin, Lynette J. Hoy
2006 | 160 Pages | ISBN: 097175991X | EPUB + MOBI | 1 MB

What’s Good About Anger? Putting Your Anger to Work for Good, 2nd edition
Most people believe that anger is a negative emotion from which no good can come. Many people think that anger should not be expressed and that such feelings are wrong. This book explores the emotion of anger and how anger-which is a part of the human experience-can be put to work for good. This third edition integrates emotional intelligence skills with the best anger management strategies and still includes spiritual insights.
Co-authors Lynette Hoy and Ted Griffin present a fresh approach to managing anger and the key role that emotional intelligence plays – putting anger to work for good! Learn about how anger can be turned into assertiveness, problem-solving, empathy, conflict management and forgiveness. Applying the cognitive, behavioral and stress management skills from the What's Good About Anger? book and workbooks can reduce your levels of anger, and help you learn effective coping behaviors to stop escalation and to resolve conflicts. Logging anger, triggering situations and applying new skills will help you more effectively control unhealthy anger responses.
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TTC How We Learn (Audiobook)

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TTC How We Learn (Audiobook)
English | MP3 128 kbps | 24 Lectures | 361 MB
Learning is a lifelong adventure. It starts in your mother's womb, accelerates to high speed in infancy and childhood, and continues through every age, whether you're actively engaged in mastering a new skill, intuitively discovering an unfamiliar place, or just sleeping, which is fundamental to helping you consolidate and hold on to what you've learned. You are truly born to learn around the clock.

TTC How We Learn (Audiobook)
But few of us know how we learn, which is the key to learning and studying more effectively. For example, you may be surprised by the following:

People tend to misjudge what they have learned well, what they don't yet know, and what they do and do not need to practice.
Moments of confusion, frustration, uncertainty, and lack of confidence are part of the process of acquiring new skills and new knowledge.
Humans and animals explore their worlds for the sake of learning, regardless of rewards and punishment connected with success.
You can teach an old dog new tricks. In fact, older learners have the benefit of prior knowledge and critical skills—two advantages in learning.
Shedding light on what's going on when we learn and dispelling common myths about the subject, How We Learn introduces you to this practical and accessible science in 24 half-hour lectures presented by Professor Monisha Pasupathi of the University of Utah, an award-winning psychology teacher and expert on how people of all ages learn.

A Course about You

Customers of The Great Courses are already devoted to lifelong learning and may be surprised at how complicated the process of learning is. We have a single word for it—learn—but it occurs in a fascinating variety of ways, which Professor Pasupathi recounts in detail. She describes a wide range of experiments that may strike a familiar chord as you recognize something about yourself or others:

scripts: We have trouble recalling specific events until we have first learned scripts for those events. Young children are prodigious learners of scripts, but so are first-time parents, college freshmen, foreign travelers, and new employees.
Variable ratio reinforcement: Children whining for candy are usually refused, but the few occasions when parents give in encourage maximal display of the behavior. The same principle is behind the success of slot machines and other unpredictable rewards.
Storytelling: Telling stories is fundamentally an act of learning about ourselves. The way we recount experiences, usually shortly after the event, has lasting effects on the way we remember those experiences and what we learn from them.
Sleeper effect: Have you ever heard something from an unreliable source and later found yourself believing it? Over time, we tend to remember information but forget the source. Paradoxically, this effect is stronger when the source is less credible.
Dr. Pasupathi's many examples cover the modern history of research on learning—from behaviorist theory in the early 20th century to the most recent debates about whether IQ can be separated from achievement, or whether a spectrum of different learning styles and multiple intelligences really exist.

What You Will Learn

You start by examining 10 myths about learning. These can get in the way of making the fullest use of the extraordinary capacity for learning and include widespread beliefs, such as that college-educated people already know how to maximize learning or that a person must be interested in a subject in order to learn it.

Professor Pasupathi then covers mistaken theories of learning, such as that lab animals and humans learn in the same way or that the brain is a tabula rasa, a blank slate that can absorb information without preparation. Babies might seem to be a counterexample, showing that you can learn from scratch. However, you examine what newborns must know at birth in order for them to learn so much, so quickly.

Next you explore in depth how humans master different tasks, from learning a native language or a second language, to becoming adept at a sport or a musical instrument, to learning a new city or a problem-solving strategy, to grasping the distinctive style of thinking required in mathematics and science. Then you look inside the learning process itself, where many factors come into play, including what is being learned and the context, along with the emotions, motivations, and goals of the learner. You close by considering individual differences. Some people seem to learn without effort. How do they do it?

Tips on Learning

Along the way, Professor Pasupathi offers frequent advice on how to excel in many different learning situations:

Mastering material: Testing yourself is a very effective strategy for mastering difficult material. Try taking a blank sheet of paper and writing down everything you can recall about the subject. Then go back and review the material. Next, try another blank sheet of paper.
Second-language learning: Becoming fluent in a second language in adulthood is difficult because your brain is tuned to your native language and misses important clues in the new language. To overcome this obstacle, immerse yourself among native speakers of the new language.
Motivating a child: When trying to motivate a schoolchild to learn, avoid controlling language, create opportunities to give the child a sense of choice, and be careful about excessive praise and other forms of rewards, which can actually undermine learning.
Maintaining a learning edge: Middle-aged and older adults can preserve their learning aptitude by exercising to maintain cardiovascular health, staying mentally active, and periodically trying a new challenge, such as learning to draw or studying new dance steps.
Adventures in Learning

Winner of prestigious teaching awards from her university's chapter of Psi Chi, the National Honor Society in Psychology, Dr. Pasupathi brings today's exciting field of learning research alive. Her descriptions of ongoing work in her field, in which she is a prominent participant, are vivid and insightful, allowing you to put yourself into a given experiment and ask, "How would I react under these circumstances? What does this tell me about my own approach to learning?"

By the time How We Learn ends, you will appreciate the incredible breadth of what we learn in our lifetimes, understand the commonality and diversity of human learning experiences, and come away with strategies for enhancing your own adventures in learning.

"Learning is a human birthright," says Professor Pasupathi. "Everything about us is built for lifelong learning—from our unusually long childhood and our large prefrontal cortex to our interest in novelty and challenge." And she finds reason for optimism about the future of humanity due to our almost miraculous capacity to learn.

About Your Professor

Dr. Monisha Pasupathi is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Utah. She holds a Ph.D. in Psychology from Stanford University. She joined the faculty at Utah in 1999 after completing a postdoctoral fellowship at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Germany.

Professor Pasupathi has been honored multiple times for her teaching. She was named Best Psychology Professor by her university's chapter of Psi Chi, the National Honor Society in Psychology. Psi Chi also awarded her the Outstanding Educator Award and Favorite Professor Award.

Professor Pasupathi's research focuses on how people of all ages learn from their experiences, particularly through storytelling. She is coeditor of Narrative Development in Adolescence: Creating the Storied Self, and her work has been published widely in scholarly journals.

Directory of TTC Teaching Company – How We Learn 2012

01 Myths about Learning.mp3
02 Why No Single Learning Theory Works.mp3
03 Learning as Information Processing.mp3
04 Creating Representations.mp3
05 Categories, Rules, and scripts.mp3
06 What Babies Know.mp3
07 Learning Your Native Tongue.mp3
08 Learning a Second Language.mp3
09 Learning How to Move.mp3
10 Learning Our Way Around.mp3
11 Learning to Tell Stories.mp3
12 Learning Approaches in Math and Science.mp3
13 Learning as Theory Testing.mp3
14 Integrating Different Domains of Learning.mp3
15 Cognitive Constraints on Learning.mp3
16 Choosing Learning Strategies.mp3
17 Source Knowledge and Learning.mp3
18 The Role of Emotion in Learning.mp3
19 Cultivating a Desire to Learn.mp3
20 Intelligence and Learning.mp3
21 Are Learning Styles Real.mp3
22 Different People, Different Interests.mp3
23 Learning across the Lifespan.mp3
24 Making the Most of How We Learn.mp3
How We Learn.txt

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Learning & Behavior, 7th International edition

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James E. Mazur, "Learning & Behavior, 7th International edition"
English | ISBN: 1292022744, 0205246443 | 2014 | 344 pages | PDF | 130 MB

Learning & Behavior, 7th International edition
A thorough survey of the field of learning.

Learning & Behavior covers topics such as classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement schedules, avoidance and punishment, stimulus control, comparative cognition, observational learning, motor skill learning, and choice.

The book includes thorough coverage of classic studies and the most recent developments and trends, while providing examples of real-world applications of the principles discovered in laboratory research. It also emphasizes the behavioral approach but not exclusively so; many cognitive theories are covered as well, and there is a chapter on comparative cognition.

Learning Goals

Upon completing this book readers will be able to:
Understand the field of learning
Discuss real-world applications of learning principles
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Brain Training: Boost memory, maximize mental agility, & awaken your inner genius

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Brain Training: Boost memory, maximize mental agility, & awaken your inner genius by Tony Buzan, DK Publishing
English | 2009 | ISBN: 075665730X | 192 pages | PDF | 23 MB

Brain Training: Boost memory, maximize mental agility, & awaken your inner genius
For people of all ages who want to improve their memory, hone learning skills, and boost mental performance in their daily lives, Brain Training is a vibrant collection of visual puzzles and tips to help exercise the brain and keep the cognitive faculties razor-sharp. Covering the key areas of brain function, including memory, perception, problem-solving, verbal reasoning, and the body (such as diet, exercise, and meditation), Brain Training is a dynamic resource that will boost everyone's brain power.
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“Trends in Neural Computation” ed. by Ke Chen, Lipo Wang

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"Trends in Neural Computation" ed. by Ke Chen, Lipo Wang
Studies in Computational Intelligence, Volume 35
S?ring?r | 2007 | ISBN: 3540361219 9783540361213 | 510 pages | PDF | 16 MB
This book reflects the progresses made in different areas of neural computation, including theoretical neural computation, biologically plausible neural modeling, computational cognitive science, artificial neural networks architectures and learning algorithms and their applications in real-world problems.

“Trends in Neural Computation” ed. by Ke Chen, Lipo Wang
Tte book includes twenty chapters either contributed from leading experts or formed by extending well selected papers presented in the 2005 International Conference on Natural Computation.

Contents
Preface
1 Hyperbolic Function Networks for Pattern Classification
2 Variable Selection for the Linear Support Vector Machine
3 Selecting Data for Fast Support Vector Machines Training
4 Universal Approach to Study Delayed Dynamical Systems
5 A Hippocampus-Neocortex Model for Chaotic Association
6 Latent Attractors: A General Paradigm for Context-Dependent Neural Computation
7 Learning Mechanisms in Networks of Spiking Neurons
8 GTSOM: Game Theoretic Self-organizing Maps
9 How to Generate Different Neural Networks
10 A Gradient-Based Forward Greedy Algorithm for Space Gaussian Process Regression
11 An Evolved Recurrent Neural Network and Its Application
12 A Min-Max Modular Network with Gaussian-Zero-Crossing Function
13 Combining Competitive Learning Networks of Various Representations for Sequential Data Clustering
14 Modular Neural Networks and Their Applications in Biometrics
15 Performance Analysis of Dynamic Cell Structures
16 Short Term Electric Load Forecasting: A Tutorial
17 Performance Improvement for Formation-Keeping Control Using a Neural Network HJI Approach
18 A Robust Blind Neural Equalizer Based on Higher-Order Cumulants
19 The Artificial Neural Network Applied to Servo Control System
20 Robot Localization Using Vision
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The Effects of Estrogen on Brain Function

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Natalie L. Rasgon, "The Effects of Estrogen on Brain Function"
English | ISBN: 0801882826 | 2006 | 180 pages | PDF | 2 MB

The Effects of Estrogen on Brain Function
This timely volume reviews current data on the effects of estrogen on the central nervous system, highlighting clinical aspects of this topic. Experts from the fields of psychiatry, pharmacology, neurology, and geriatrics collaborate to clarify the known risks and benefits of hormone therapy and explore questions that remain to be elucidated.

Among the topics discussed:" Preclinical data on estrogen's effects on cognitive performance" The short-lived effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive function" Structural and functional brain imaging data regardingestrogen's effects on the central nervous system " Preclinical efforts to develop effective NeuroSERMs for the brain " The effects of estrogen on mood

Citing the ongoing confusion over the risks and benefits of estrogen therapy, the contributors emphasize the need for additional research on medication, doses, preparations, methods of administration, alternative therapies, and supplements.

This volume educates researchers, clinicians, and students on the current knowledge-including the effects of estrogen on mood, cognition, and brain metabolism-and provides guidelines for clinical practice and future research.

Contributors: Roberta Diaz Brinton, Ph.D., University of Southern California; Cheri L. Geist, B.A., David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles; Robert B. Gibbs, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy; Eva Hogervorst, Ph.D., University of Loughborough and University of Oxford; Pauline M. Maki, Ph.D., Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of Illinois-Chicago; Peter J. Schmidt, M.D., National Institute of Mental Health; Daniel H. S. Silverman, M.D., Ph.D., David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles; Katherine E. Williams, M.D., Stanford University School of Medicine; Kristine Yaffe, M.D., University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco VA Medical Center; Laurel N. Zappert, B.A., Stanford University School of Medicine; Liqin Zhao, Ph.D., University of Southern California
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The Cognitive-Emotional Brain: From Interactions to Integration

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The Cognitive-Emotional Brain: From Interactions to Integration by Luiz Pessoa
English | 2013 | ISBN: 0262019566 | 320 pages | PDF | 8 MB

The Cognitive-Emotional Brain: From Interactions to Integration
The idea that a specific brain circuit constitutes the emotional brain (and its corollary, that cognition resides elsewhere) shaped thinking about emotion and the brain for many years. Recent behavioral, neuropsychological, neuroanatomy, and neuroimaging research, however, suggests that emotion interacts with cognition in the brain. In this book, Luiz Pessoa moves beyond the debate over functional specialization, describing the many ways that emotion and cognition interact and are integrated in the brain.

The amygdala is often viewed as the quintessential emotional region of the brain, but Pessoa reviews findings revealing that many of its functions contribute to attention and decision making, critical components of cognitive functions. He counters the idea of a subcortical pathway to the amygdala for affective visual stimuli with an alternate framework, the multiple waves model. Citing research on reward and motivation, Pessoa also proposes the dual competition model, which explains emotional and motivational processing in terms of their influence on competition processes at both perceptual and executive function levels. He considers the broader issue of structure-function mappings, and examines anatomical features of several regions often associated with emotional processing, highlighting their connectivity properties. As new theoretical frameworks of distributed processing evolve, Pessoa concludes, a truly dynamic network view of the brain will emerge, in which "emotion" and "cognition" may be used as labels in the context of certain behaviors, but will not map cleanly into compartmentalized pieces of the brain.
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Michael Spivey, “The Continuity of Mind (Oxford Psychology)”

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Michael Spivey, "The Continuity of Mind (Oxford Psychology)"
Publisher: Oxford University Press | ISBN: 0195370783 | edition 2008 | PDF | 445 pages | 8,28 mb
The cognitive and neural sciences have been on the brink of a paradigm shift for over a decade now. The traditional information-processing framework in psychology, with its computer metaphor of the mind, is still considered to be the mainstream approach.

Michael Spivey, “The Continuity of Mind (Oxford Psychology)”
However, the dynamical-systems perspective on mental activity is now receiving a more rigorous treatment, allowing it to move beyond the trendy buzzwords that have become associated with it. The Continuity of Mind will help to galvanize the forces of dynamical systems theory, cognitive and computational neuroscience, connectionism, and ecological psychology that are needed to complete this paradigm shift.
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