Tag Archives: Commerce

The Jews of Beirut: The Rise of a Levantine Community, 1860s-1930s

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Tomer Levi, "The Jews of Beirut: The Rise of a Levantine Community, 1860s-1930s"
2012 | ISBN-10: 1433117096 | 230 pages | PDF | 10 MB

The Jews of Beirut: The Rise of a Levantine Community, 1860s-1930s
is the first study to investigate the emergence of an organized and vibrant Jewish community in Beirut in the late Ottoman and French period. Viewed in the context of port city revival, the author explores how and why the Jewish community changed during this time in its social cohesion, organizational structure, and ideological affiliations. Tomer Levi defines the Jewish community as a «Levantine» creation of late-nineteenth-century port city revival, characterized by cultural and social diversity, centralized administration, efficient organization, and a merchant class engaged in commerce and philanthropy. In addition, the author shows how the position of the Jewish community in the unique multi-community structure of Lebanese society affected internal developments within the Jewish community.
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1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half

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Stephen R. Bown, "1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half"
English | 2012-02-14 | ISBN: 0312616120, 1553655567 | 304 pages | EPUB, MOBI | 5 MB

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half
In 1494, award-winning author Stephen R. Bown tells the untold story of the explosive feud between monarchs, clergy, and explorers that split the globe between Spain and Portugal and made the world's oceans a battleground.

When Columbus triumphantly returned from America to Spain in 1493, his discoveries inflamed an already-smouldering conflict between Spain's renowned monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal's João II. Which nation was to control the world's oceans? To quell the argument, Pope Alexander VI-the notorious Rodrigo Borgia-issued a proclamation laying the foundation for the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, an edict that created an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean dividing the entire known (and unknown) world between Spain and Portugal.

Just as the world's oceans were about to be opened by Columbus's epochal voyage, the treaty sought to limit the seas to these two favored Catholic nations. The edict was to have a profound influence on world history: it propelled Spain and Portugal to superpower status, steered many other European nations on a collision course, and became the central grievance in two centuries of international espionage, piracy, and warfare.

The treaty also began the fight for "the freedom of the seas"-the epic struggle to determine whether the world's oceans, and thus global commerce, would be controlled by the decree of an autocrat or be open to the ships of any nation-a distinctly modern notion, championed in the early seventeenth century by the Dutch legal theorist Hugo Grotius, whose arguments became the foundation of international law.

At the heart of one of the greatest international diplomatic and political agreements of the last five centuries were the strained relationships and passions of a handful of powerful individuals. They were linked by a shared history, mutual animosity, and personal obligations-quarrels, rivalries, and hatreds that dated back decades. Yet the struggle ultimately stemmed from a young woman's determination to defy tradition and the king, and to choose her own husband.
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The Armies of Bolivar and San Martin (Men-at-Arms Series 232)

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Terry Hooker, Ron Poulter – The Armies of Bolivar and San Martin
Osprey Publishing | 1991 | ISBN: 1855321289 | English | 49 pages | PDF | 60.96 MB
Men-at-Arms Series 232

The Armies of Bolivar and San Martin (Men-at-Arms Series 232)
Spanish Americans of the early 19th century were eager to institute self-government and open their ports to foreign commerce. During the years 1810-14 two men of outstanding ability appeared in the front ranks of the Republican cause: Simon Bolivar, the greatest of all South American soldiers, and José de San Martin. These two men would achieve the destruction of the southern Spanish American empire as they fought to establish nations shaped and governed 'by Americans, for Americans'. This book details their military campaigns to free South America from the grip of Imperial Spain, including descriptions of their equipment, uniforms, weaponry and enemies.
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Trust Networks for Recommender Systems (Atlantis Computational Intelligence Systems)

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Trust Networks for Recommender Systems (Atlantis Computational Intelligence Systems) by Patricia Victor, Chris Cornelis and Martine De Cock
English | 2011 | ISBN: 9491216074 , 9789491216077 | 202 pages | PDF | 3 MB

Trust Networks for Recommender Systems (Atlantis Computational Intelligence Systems)
Foreword
Recommendation Systems are gaining tremendous prominence in the digital society, and are fast becoming the bastions of electronic commerce. "Will I like this book?", "Is this a movie I can see with my kids?', Which hotel will suit me the best?": we increasingly rely on the social aspects of the world wide web (WWW) to help us navigate through such questions in our everyday life. We are quick to judge, and even quicker to just imitate our friends and do what they did. The magic potion that casts a spell on us to imitate and even at times make irrational decisions is trust. Trust enhanced recommender systems are designed to help us to form an opinion on matters that are not entirely known to us, or evennot known at all.
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Commerce of the Sacred: Mediation of the Divine Among Jews in the Graeco-Roman Diaspora

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Jack Lightstone, "Commerce of the Sacred: Mediation of the Divine Among Jews in the Graeco-Roman Diaspora"
2006 | pages: 197 | ISBN: 0231128576 | PDF | 15,3 mb

Jack Lightstone's "Commerce of the Sacred" remains an original and influential contribution to Judaic studies. Lightstone offers critical perspectives on the practices and beliefs of Greco-Roman Jews who lived outside of Palestine and beyond rabbinic control or influence. He investigates their influence on early Christians and examines how the two communities defined themselves in relation to each another.

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