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Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment

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Natasha Gill, "Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment"
English | 2010 | ISBN-10: 0754662896 | 304 pages | PDF | 4 MB

Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment
Though Emile is still considered the central pedagogical text of the French Enlightenment, a myriad of lesser-known thinkers paved the way for Rousseau's masterpiece. Natasha Gill traces the arc of these thinkers as they sought to reveal the correlation between early childhood experiences and the success or failure of social and political relations, and set the terms for the modern debate about the influence of nature and nurture in individual growth and collective life. Gill offers a comprehensive analysis of the rich cross-fertilization between educational and philosophical thought in the French Enlightenment. She begins by showing how in Some Thoughts Concerning Education John Locke set the stage for the French debate by transposing key themes from his philosophy into an educational context. Her treatment of the abbe Claude Fleury, the rector of the University of Paris Charles Rollin, and Swiss educator Jean-Pierre de Crousaz illustrates the extent to which early Enlightenment theorists reevaluated childhood and learning methods on the basis of sensationist psychology. Etienne-Gabriel Morelly, usually studied as a marginal thinker in the history of utopian thought, is here revealed as the most important precursor to Rousseau, and the first theorist to claim education as the vehicle through which individual liberation, social harmony and political unity could be achieved. Gill concludes with an analysis of the educational-philosophical dispute between Helvetius and Rousseau, and traces the influence of pedagogical theory on the political debate surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1762.

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Whitlam

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Brian Carroll, "Whitlam"
English | ISBN: 1921719133 | 2011 | EPUB | 256 pages | 9 MB

Whitlam
Edward Gough Whitlam was one of the most momentous figures in Australian political history. Born into a privileged life that should have seen him on the side with the 'born-to-rule gang,' Whitlam took a different path and joined the Australian Labor Party. Although he was branded as a 'silver tail' (one who is considered wealthy, usually by inherited money) by the rough and ready men of Labor, Whitlam fought to convince Labor that they were something more than just the political arm of the union movement, and that principle without power was an exercise in futility. He overcame party resistance and, in 1972, led Labor triumphantly into the government benches, where he became Parliamentary leader. However, the pace of change scared too many people and sudden developments in the world economic environment brought challenges Whitlam could not overcome. Nor could he overcome the local political challenges thrown down by the conservative forces, once they had recovered from the shock of the 1972 election results. Whitlam held them at bay when they forced him to the electors 18 months ahead of schedule in mid-1974. Although he won the election with a reduced majority, he and his colleagues seemed determined to continue providing the opposition with the ammunition needed to shoot him down, and on November 11, 1975, they finally did. This book recaptures the excitement of one of the most contentious and momentous events in Australian political history.
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Conservation Agriculture

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Conservation Agriculture by Muhammad Farooq and Kadambot Siddique
English | 2014 | ISBN: 3319116193 | 665 pages | PDF | 20 MB

Conservation Agriculture
Conservation agriculture-consisting of four components including permanent soil cover, minimum soil disturbance, diversified crop rotations and integrated weed management-is considered the principal pathway to sustainable agriculture and the conservation of natural resources and the environment. Leading researchers in the field describe the basic principles of conservation agriculture, and synthesize recent advances and developments in conservation agriculture research. This book is a ready reference on conservation agriculture and reinforces the understanding for its utilization to develop environmentally sustainable and profitable food production systems. The book describes various elements of conservation agriculture; highlights the associated breeding and modeling efforts; analyses the experiences and challenges in conservation agriculture in different regions of the world; and proposes some pragmatic options and new areas of research in this very important area of agriculture.
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The Globalization of Supermax Prisons

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The Globalization of Supermax Prisons By Loic Wacquant, Jeffrey Ian Ross
2013 | 242 Pages | ISBN: 0813557402 , 0813557410 | PDF | 1 MB

The Globalization of Supermax Prisons
"Supermax" prisons, conceived by the United States in the early 1980s, are typically reserved for convicted political criminals such as terrorists and spies and for other inmates who are considered to pose a serious ongoing threat to the wider community, to the security of correctional institutions, or to the safety of other inmates. Prisoners are usually restricted to their cells for up to twenty-three hours a day and typically have minimal contact with other inmates and correctional staff. examines why nine advanced industrialized countries have adopted the supermax prototype. Featuring essays that look at the U.S.-run prisons of Abu Ghraib and Guantanemo, this collection seeks to determine if the American model is the basis for the establishment of these facilities and considers such issues as the support or opposition to the building of a supermax and why opposition efforts failed; the allegation of human rights abuses within these prisons; and the extent to which the decision to build a supermax was influenced by developments in the United States. Additionally, contributors address such domestic matters as the role of crime rates, media sensationalism, and terrorism in each country's decision to build a supermax prison.
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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications

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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications by Surojit Chattopadhyay
English | 2014 | ISBN: 9814463949 | 254 pages | PDF | 30 MB

Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications
Plasma-processed biomimetic structures are an extremely focused and small subset of biomimetics. Although other methods can also be adopted, experimental synthesis of biomimetic structures mainly focuses on plasma processing. This book deals with the theoretical description of photonic structures available in nature, and the physics and applications of biomimetic structures prepared in the laboratory. It discusses anti-reflection properties of moth eye- or cicada wing-type nanostructured materials on semiconductor surfaces, with emphasis on plasma fabrication procedures. It also explains, with the help of related theories, the superhydrophobic or hydrophilic wetting properties demonstrated by most of these natural structures. It discusses biomedical applications, especially in implants, as one of the key applications of such materials.
The book focuses mainly on plasma processing of biomimetic nanostructures and is, therefore, different from similar books that are more general in nature. It presents essential schematics, sufficient details, and advanced instrumentation techniques that would help readers understand why these structures are considered so important in materials science and physics.
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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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Nonlinear Waves in Elastic Crystals

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Nonlinear Waves in Elastic Crystals
English | Physics, Mathematics | January 2000 | ISBN-10: 0198534841 | 320 pages | Djvu | 3.2 mb
The mathematical modelling of changing structures in materials is of increasing importance to industry where applications of the theory are found in subjects as diverse as aerospace and medicine.

Nonlinear Waves in Elastic Crystals
This book deals with aspects of the nonlinear dynamics of deformable ordered solids (known as elastic crystals) where the nonlinear effects combine or compete with each other. Physical and mathematical models are discused and computational aspects are also included. Different models are considered – on discrete as well as continuum scales – applying heat, electricity, or magnetism to the crystal structure and these are analysed using the equations of rational mechanics. In this way the student is introduced to the important equations of nonlinear science that describe shock waves, solitons and chaos and also the non-exactly integrable systems or partial differential equations. A large number of problems and examples are included, many taken from recent research and involving both one-dimensional and two-dimensional problems as well as some coupled degress of freedom.
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Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1

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Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1 By Dr. Muralisrinivasan Natama Subramanian
2014 | 138 Pages | ISBN: 1909030600 | PDF | 1 MB

Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1
Polymer Compounding, Volume 1 focuses on aspects of the raw materials used in polymer processing. Polymer compounding comprises a complex heterogeneous system of polymers and other ingredients and, in many ways, the preparation of these materials is still very much an art. It is a powerful tool that will eventually be required as one of the basics of polymer processing. This book provides readers with a wide array of state-of-the-art strategies to develop their knowledge about compounding and the use of polymers while minimising wastage during processing. Details about polymer properties and additives are assembled to provide a one-source repository for compounding. Another important point to be considered in the book is the combination of polymers and additives and the essentials required for the development of economic and environmental incentives in polymer processing. This book will encourage further studies to understand the scientifically challenging polymer processing issues arising during the manufacture of parts for end-use applications. Finally, this volume presents an overview of polymer compounding requirements, as well as an idea of some of the future directions, advances and challenges of polymer processing.
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Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder

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Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder by Isaiah Berlin
English | 2013 | ISBN: 0691157650 | 576 pages | PDF | 6,8 MB

Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder
Isaiah Berlin was deeply admired during his life, but his full contribution was perhaps underestimated because of his preference for the long essay form. The efforts of Henry Hardy to edit Berlin's work and reintroduce it to a broad, eager readership have gone far to remedy this. Now, Princeton is pleased to return to print, under one cover, Berlin's essays on these celebrated and captivating intellectual portraits: Vico, Hamann, and Herder. These essays on three relatively uncelebrated thinkers are not marginal ruminations, but rather among Berlin's most important studies in the history of ideas. They are integral to his central project: the critical recovery of the ideas of the Counter-Enlightenment and the explanation of its appeal and consequences–both positive and (often) tragic.

Giambattista Vico was the anachronistic and impoverished Neapolitan philosopher sometimes credited with founding the human sciences. He opposed Enlightenment methods as cold and fallacious. J. G. Hamann was a pious, cranky dilettante in a peripheral German city. But he was brilliant enough to gain the audience of Kant, Goethe, and Moses Mendelssohn. In Hamann's chaotic and long-ignored writings, Berlin finds the first strong attack on Enlightenment rationalism and a wholly original source of the coming swell of romanticism. Johann Gottfried Herder, the progenitor of populism and European nationalism, rejected universalism and rationalism but championed cultural pluralism.

Individually, these fascinating intellectual biographies reveal Berlin's own great intelligence, learning, and generosity, as well as the passionate genius of his subjects. Together, they constitute an arresting interpretation of romanticism's precursors. In Hamann's railings and the more considered writings of Vico and Herder, Berlin finds critics of the Enlightenment worthy of our careful attention. But he identifies much that is misguided in their rejection of universal values, rationalism, and science. With his customary emphasis on the frightening power of ideas, Berlin traces much of the next centuries' irrationalism and suffering to the historicism and particularism they advocated. What Berlin has to say about these long-dead thinkers–in appreciation and dissent–is remarkably timely in a day when Enlightenment beliefs are being challenged not just by academics but by politicians and by powerful nationalist and fundamentalist movements.

The study of J. G. Hamann was originally published under the title The Magus of the North: J. G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism. The essays on Vico and Herder were originally published as Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas. Both are out of print.
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