Tag Archives: Intellectual

Novel Optical Resolution Technologies

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Novel Optical Resolution Technologies
English | Physics, Chemistry | 15. February 2007 | ISBN-10: 3540463178 | 313 pages | pdf | 11 mb
After theend ofthe 20th century, the science ofcrystallizationreached a truly exciting stage where new opportunities emerged in both theory and expe- ment.

Novel Optical Resolution Technologies
Variousphysical methodsare capableofresolvingthesurface as wellas theinsidestructureofcrystalsattheatomiclevelwhilenewhigh-performance computingresourcesaffordthecapabilityofmodelingthecomplexlarge-scale alignmentsnecessarytosimulatecrystallizationinrealsystems.Asaresult,the science of crystallization has shifted gradually fromstatic to dynamic science and considerable progress now underlies the complex but beautiful cryst- lization process. I believe that if a de?nitive history of 21st century science is ever written,one of the highlightswill be the science ofcrystallization. This science has the following characteristics: in?nite advances in soph- tication, unlimited opportunities not only for intellectual excitement but also forindustrialmerit,strongcollaborationwithbiologyandmaterialscience,as wellaswithallareasofchemistry.Thevastpotentialofcrystallizationasan- portant?eld ofscience isfar beyondthesimple technologyofpharmaceutical industries during the 20th century. Optical resolution was one small area of chemistry in the last century. This was more a technology than a science, largely because trial and error was the only method to obtain good results. However, the situation is now changing. Therearesomanyappealing,hidden?ndingsintheprocessofcrystallization. Historically, crystallization began in an old laboratory in academia and then gradually shifted to industry. Now,it is making itscomeback in academia due toseveralnewresearchbranchestryingtodiscoverwhatisgoingonduringthe crystallizationprocess.Ibelieve this?eld ofscience isnowgrowingasa result of the wonderfulcoupling between industry and academia. I read a prepublication draft of ,and foundthateachoneofthesegeneralcharacteristicsofsciencehadarealityand sharpness that I had not expected. While it was a sheer delight to revisit each of these triumphs guided by the wise insights and analyses found throughout the book. There is a good balance between the underlying historical material and the design and execution aspects of each topic.
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Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder

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Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder by Isaiah Berlin
English | 2013 | ISBN: 0691157650 | 576 pages | PDF | 6,8 MB

Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder
Isaiah Berlin was deeply admired during his life, but his full contribution was perhaps underestimated because of his preference for the long essay form. The efforts of Henry Hardy to edit Berlin's work and reintroduce it to a broad, eager readership have gone far to remedy this. Now, Princeton is pleased to return to print, under one cover, Berlin's essays on these celebrated and captivating intellectual portraits: Vico, Hamann, and Herder. These essays on three relatively uncelebrated thinkers are not marginal ruminations, but rather among Berlin's most important studies in the history of ideas. They are integral to his central project: the critical recovery of the ideas of the Counter-Enlightenment and the explanation of its appeal and consequences–both positive and (often) tragic.

Giambattista Vico was the anachronistic and impoverished Neapolitan philosopher sometimes credited with founding the human sciences. He opposed Enlightenment methods as cold and fallacious. J. G. Hamann was a pious, cranky dilettante in a peripheral German city. But he was brilliant enough to gain the audience of Kant, Goethe, and Moses Mendelssohn. In Hamann's chaotic and long-ignored writings, Berlin finds the first strong attack on Enlightenment rationalism and a wholly original source of the coming swell of romanticism. Johann Gottfried Herder, the progenitor of populism and European nationalism, rejected universalism and rationalism but championed cultural pluralism.

Individually, these fascinating intellectual biographies reveal Berlin's own great intelligence, learning, and generosity, as well as the passionate genius of his subjects. Together, they constitute an arresting interpretation of romanticism's precursors. In Hamann's railings and the more considered writings of Vico and Herder, Berlin finds critics of the Enlightenment worthy of our careful attention. But he identifies much that is misguided in their rejection of universal values, rationalism, and science. With his customary emphasis on the frightening power of ideas, Berlin traces much of the next centuries' irrationalism and suffering to the historicism and particularism they advocated. What Berlin has to say about these long-dead thinkers–in appreciation and dissent–is remarkably timely in a day when Enlightenment beliefs are being challenged not just by academics but by politicians and by powerful nationalist and fundamentalist movements.

The study of J. G. Hamann was originally published under the title The Magus of the North: J. G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism. The essays on Vico and Herder were originally published as Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas. Both are out of print.
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Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning

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Jonah Goldberg, "Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning"
English | 2008 | ISBN-10: 0385511841, 0767917189 | EPUB | 496 pages | 0,5 MB

Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, From Mussolini to the Politics of Meaning
"Fascists," "Brownshirts," "jackbooted stormtroopers"-such are the insults typically hurled at conservatives by their liberal opponents. Calling someone a fascist is the fastest way to shut them up, defining their views as beyond the political pale. But who are the real fascists in our midst?

Liberal Fascism offers a startling new perspective on the theories and practices that define fascist politics. Replacing conveniently manufactured myths with surprising and enlightening research, Jonah Goldberg reminds us that the original fascists were really on the left, and that liberals from Woodrow Wilson to FDR to Hillary Clinton have advocated policies and principles remarkably similar to those of Hitler's National Socialism and Mussolini's Fascism.

Contrary to what most people think, the Nazis were ardent socialists (hence the term "National socialism"). They believed in free health care and guaranteed jobs. They confiscated inherited wealth and spent vast sums on public education. They purged the church from public policy, promoted a new form of pagan spirituality, and inserted the authority of the state into every nook and cranny of daily life. The Nazis declared war on smoking, supported abortion, euthanasia, and gun control. They loathed the free market, provided generous pensions for the elderly, and maintained a strict racial quota system in their universities-where campus speech codes were all the rage. The Nazis led the world in organic farming and alternative medicine. Hitler was a strict vegetarian, and Himmler was an animal rights activist.

Do these striking parallels mean that today's liberals are genocidal maniacs, intent on conquering the world and imposing a new racial order? Not at all. Yet it is hard to deny that modern progressivism and classical fascism shared the same intellectual roots. We often forget, for example, that Mussolini and Hitler had many admirers in the United States. W.E.B. Du Bois was inspired by Hitler's Germany, and Irving Berlin praised Mussolini in song. Many fascist tenets were espoused by American progressives like John Dewey and Woodrow Wilson, and FDR incorporated fascist policies in the New Deal.

Fascism was an international movement that appeared in different forms in different countries, depending on the vagaries of national culture and temperament. In Germany, fascism appeared as genocidal racist nationalism. In America, it took a "friendlier," more liberal form. The modern heirs of this "friendly fascist" tradition include the New York Times, the Democratic Party, the Ivy League professoriate, and the liberals of Hollywood. The quintessential Liberal Fascist isn't an SS storm trooper; it is a female grade school teacher with an education degree from Brown or Swarthmore.

These assertions may sound strange to modern ears, but that is because we have forgotten what fascism is. In this angry, funny, smart, contentious book, Jonah Goldberg turns our preconceptions inside out and shows us the true meaning of Liberal Fascism.
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Mashup Cultures

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Mashup Cultures By Stefan Sonvilla-Weiss
Publisher: Spri.,.nger Vien..na Architec..ture 2010 | 256 Pages | ISBN: 370910095X | PDF | 3 MB

Mashup Cultures
The genesis of this volume is partly owed to the fact that the international study programme ePedagogy Design – Visual Knowledge Building is celebrating its fifth anniversary, and what could be a better symbolic, practical and intellectual present to myself, my students, co-workers and affiliates on this very occasion.
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The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry

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The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry
English | Apr 23, 1987 | ISBN: 0195049969 | 400 Pages | PDF | 15,4 MB

The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry
Part philosophical meditation, part cultural critique, The Body in Pain is a profoundly original study that has already stirred excitement in a wide range of intellectual circles. The book is an analysis of physical suffering and its relation to the numerous vocabularies and cultural forces–literary, political, philosophical, medical, religious–that confront it.

Elaine Scarry bases her study on a wide range of sources: literature and art, medical case histories, documents on torture compiled by Amnesty International, legal transcripts of personal injury trials, and military and strategic writings by such figures as Clausewitz, Churchill, Liddell Hart, and Kissinger, She weaves these into her discussion with an eloquence, humanity, and insight that recall the writings of Hannah Arendt and Jean-Paul Sartre.

Scarry begins with the fact of pain's inexpressibility. Not only is physical pain enormously difficult to describe in words–confronted with it, Virginia Woolf once noted, "language runs dry"–it also actively destroys language, reducing sufferers in the most extreme instances to an inarticulate state of cries and moans. Scarry analyzes the political ramifications of deliberately inflicted pain, specifically in the cases of torture and warfare, and shows how to be fictive. From these actions of "unmaking" Scarry turns finally to the actions of "making"–the examples of artistic and cultural creation that work against pain and the debased uses that are made of it. Challenging and inventive, The Body in Pain is landmark work that promises to spark widespread debate.
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New Directions in Local History Since Hoskins

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New Directions in Local History Since Hoskins by Christopher Dyer and Andrew Hopper
English | 2011-10-01 | ISBN: 1907396128 | PDF | 288 pages | 5 MB

New Directions in Local History Since Hoskins
Utilizing the techniques developed by renowned local historian W. G. Hoskins in his landmark study published 50 years ago, Local History in England, this book demonstrates how local history has evolved as a discipline over the last half century. Fifteen historians write about a variety of local history subjects that are significant in their own right but which also point to current trends in the field. They show how local historians use their sources systematically, from the nonverbal evidence of buildings to various types of electronic sources. All periods between the middle ages and the early twenty-first century are explored, covering many parts of England from Skye to the Kent coast and discussing topics that include social, economic, religious, legal, intellectual, and cultural history.
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Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West

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Jin Li, "Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West"
English | ISBN: 0521160626, 0521768292 | 2012 | PDF | 400 pages | 3.6 MB

Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West
Western and East Asian people hold fundamentally different beliefs about learning that influence how they approach child rearing and education. Reviewing decades of research, Dr. Jin Li presents an important conceptual distinction between the Western mind model and the East Asian virtue model of learning. The former aims to cultivate the mind to understand the world, whereas the latter prioritizes the self to be perfected morally and socially. Tracing the cultural origins of the two large intellectual traditions, Li details how each model manifests itself in the psychology of the learning process, learning affect, regard of one's learning peers, expression of what one knows, and parents' guiding efforts. Despite today's accelerated cultural exchange, these learning models do not diminish but endure.
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Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880s-1940s

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Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880s-1940s (China Studies) by Jing Tsu, Benjamin A. Elman
2014 | ISBN: 9004258531 | English | 347 pages | PDF | 6 MB

Science and Technology in Modern China, 1880s-1940s
The first of its kind, this collection of critical essays opens up new venues in the comparative study of science and culture by focusing on the formative decades of modern China in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century. It provides a wide-ranging examination of the cultural and intellectual history of science and technology in modern China.From anti-imperialism to the technology of Chinese writing, the commodification of novelties to the rise of the modern professional scientist, new lexica and appropriations of the past, the contributors map out a transregional and global circuitry of modern knowledge and practical know-how, nationalism and the amalgamation of new social practices.
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