Tag Archives: nation state

Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China

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Enze Han, "Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China"
2013 | ISBN-10: 0199936293 | 240 pages | PDF | 13 MB

Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China
Contestation and Adaptation unravels the complexities of national-identity contestation among various ethnic minority groups in China. It focuses on the interactions between domestic and international forces that inform ethnic groups' national-identity contestation, positing a theoretical framework where international factors play a significant role in determining why and when ethnic groups will contest the national identities imposed on them by central governments as part of the nation-building process.

Simmering grievances and occasional outbursts of social unrest among ethnic minority populations in China challenge not only the ruling party's legitimacy and governance, but also contemporary Chinese national identity and the territorial integrity of the Chinese state. But, as Enze Han points out, of the fifty-five ethnic minority groups in China, only the Tibetans and Uyghurs have forcefully contested the idea of a Chinese national identity. He argues that whether ethnic groups contest those national identities depends on whether they perceive a better, achievable alternative. In particular, Han argues that ethnic groups with extensive external kinship networks are most likely to perceive a capacity to achieve better circumstances and are, therefore, more likely to politically mobilize to contest national identity. In the absence of such alternatives ethnic groups are more likely to cope with their situation through emigration, political ambivalence, or assimilation. Using this theoretical framework, the book compares the way that five major ethnic minority groups in China negotiate their national identities with the Chinese nation-state: Uyghurs, Chinese Koreans, Dai, Mongols, and Tibetans. Overall, Contestation and Adaptation sheds light on the nation-building processes in China over the past six decades and the ways that different groups have resisted or acquiesced in their dealings with the Chinese state and majority Han Chinese society.
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The Politics of Refugees in South Asia: Identity, Resistance, Manipulation

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The Politics of Refugees in South Asia: Identity, Resistance, Manipulation by Navine Murshid
English | 2013 | ISBN: 0415629306 | 160 pages | PDF | 1,2 MB
Partition and post-colonial migrations – sometimes voluntary, often forced – have created borders in South Asia that serve to oppress rather than protect. Migrants and refugees feel their real home lies beyond the border, and liberation struggles continue the quest for freedoms that have proven to be elusive for many.

The Politics of Refugees in South Asia: Identity, Resistance, Manipulation
States scapegoat refugees as "outsiders" for their own ends, justifying the denial of their rights, while academic discourse on refugees represents them either as victims or as terrorists. Taking a stance against such projections, this book examines refugees' struggles for better living conditions and against marginalization.

By analyzing protest and militarization among refugees, the book argues that they are neither victims without agency nor war entrepreneurs. Through interviews, surveys, and statistical analyses, it shows how states have manipulated refugee identity and resistance to promote the ideal of the nation-state, thereby creating protracted refugee crises. This is evident even in the most humanitarian state intervention in modern South Asia – India's military intervention in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1971.

The findings put forward provide the basis to understand the conditions under which violence can break out, and thereby have implications for host countries, donor countries, and aid organizations in the formulation of refugee-policy. The book is of interest to scholars in the fields of South Asian studies, comparative politics, international relations, refugee studies, development studies, security studies and peace studies.
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