Tag Archives: Nature

Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment

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Natasha Gill, "Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment"
English | 2010 | ISBN-10: 0754662896 | 304 pages | PDF | 4 MB

Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment
Though Emile is still considered the central pedagogical text of the French Enlightenment, a myriad of lesser-known thinkers paved the way for Rousseau's masterpiece. Natasha Gill traces the arc of these thinkers as they sought to reveal the correlation between early childhood experiences and the success or failure of social and political relations, and set the terms for the modern debate about the influence of nature and nurture in individual growth and collective life. Gill offers a comprehensive analysis of the rich cross-fertilization between educational and philosophical thought in the French Enlightenment. She begins by showing how in Some Thoughts Concerning Education John Locke set the stage for the French debate by transposing key themes from his philosophy into an educational context. Her treatment of the abbe Claude Fleury, the rector of the University of Paris Charles Rollin, and Swiss educator Jean-Pierre de Crousaz illustrates the extent to which early Enlightenment theorists reevaluated childhood and learning methods on the basis of sensationist psychology. Etienne-Gabriel Morelly, usually studied as a marginal thinker in the history of utopian thought, is here revealed as the most important precursor to Rousseau, and the first theorist to claim education as the vehicle through which individual liberation, social harmony and political unity could be achieved. Gill concludes with an analysis of the educational-philosophical dispute between Helvetius and Rousseau, and traces the influence of pedagogical theory on the political debate surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1762.

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Risk and Social Theory in Environmental Management

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Risk and Social Theory in Environmental Management by Thomas Measham, Stewart Lockie
2012 | ISBN: 0643104127 | English | 232 pages | PDF | 12 MB

Risk and Social Theory in Environmental Management
marks a timely contribution, given that environmental management is no longer just about protecting pristine ecosystems and endangered species from anthropogenic harm; it is about calculating and managing the risks to human communities of rapid environmental and technological change.

First, the book provides a solid foundation of the social theory underpinning the nature of risk, then presents a rethinking of key concepts and methods in order to take more seriously the biophysical embeddedness of human society. Second, it presents a rich set of case studies from Australia and around the world, drawing on the latest applied research conducted by leading research institutions. In so doing, the book identifies the tensions that arise from decision making over risk and uncertainty in a contested policy environment, and provides crucial insights for addressing on-the-ground problems in an integrated way.

* First volume to address environmental risk from a social science perspective
* Latest theoretical developments
* In depth case studies of contemporary issues (e.g. climate change, water shortages)
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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications

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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications by Surojit Chattopadhyay
English | 2014 | ISBN: 9814463949 | 254 pages | PDF | 30 MB

Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications
Plasma-processed biomimetic structures are an extremely focused and small subset of biomimetics. Although other methods can also be adopted, experimental synthesis of biomimetic structures mainly focuses on plasma processing. This book deals with the theoretical description of photonic structures available in nature, and the physics and applications of biomimetic structures prepared in the laboratory. It discusses anti-reflection properties of moth eye- or cicada wing-type nanostructured materials on semiconductor surfaces, with emphasis on plasma fabrication procedures. It also explains, with the help of related theories, the superhydrophobic or hydrophilic wetting properties demonstrated by most of these natural structures. It discusses biomedical applications, especially in implants, as one of the key applications of such materials.
The book focuses mainly on plasma processing of biomimetic nanostructures and is, therefore, different from similar books that are more general in nature. It presents essential schematics, sufficient details, and advanced instrumentation techniques that would help readers understand why these structures are considered so important in materials science and physics.
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Blood and Violence in Early Modern France

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Stuart Carroll "Blood and Violence in Early Modern France"
Oxford University Press | 2006-07-03 | ISBN: 0199290458 | 384 pages | PDF | 5 MB

Blood and Violence in Early Modern France
The rise of civilized conduct and behaviour has long been seen as one of the major factors in the transformation from medieval to modern society. Thinkers and historians alike argue that violence progressively declined as men learned to control their emotions. The feud is a phenomenon associated with backward societies, and in the West duelling codified behaviour and channelled aggression into ritualised combats that satisfied honour without the shedding of blood. French manners and codes of civility laid the foundations of civilized Western values. But as this original work of archival research shows we continue to romanticize violence in the era of the swashbuckling swordsman. In France, thousands of men died in duels in which the rules of the game were regularly flouted. Many duels were in fact mini-battles and must be seen not as a replacement of the blood feud, but as a continuation of vengeance-taking in a much bloodier form. This book outlines the nature of feuding in France and its intensification in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, civil war and dynastic weakness, and considers the solutions proposed by thinkers from Montaigne to Hobbes. The creation of the largest standing army in Europe since the Romans was one such solution, but the militarization of society, a model adopted throughout Europe, reveals the darker side of the civilizing process.
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Buddhism Between Tibet and China

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Buddhism Between Tibet and China By Matthew Kapstein
2009 | 480 Pages | ISBN: 0861715810 | PDF | 6 MB

Buddhism Between Tibet and China
Exploring the long history of cultural exchange between 'the Roof of the World' and 'the Middle Kingdom,' features a collection of noteworthy essays that probe the nature of their relationship, spanning from the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE) to the present day. Annotated and contextualized by noted scholar Matthew Kapstein and others, the historical accounts that comprise this volume display the rich dialogue between Tibet and China in the areas of scholarship, the fine arts, politics, philosophy, and religion. This thoughtful book provides insight into the surprisingly complex history behind the relationship from a variety of geographical regions.
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Learning from Leonardo: Decoding the Notebooks of a Genius

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Learning from Leonardo: Decoding the Notebooks of a Genius by Fritjof Capra
English | 2013 | ISBN: 1609949897 | 384 pages | EPUB | 19 MB

Learning from Leonardo: Decoding the Notebooks of a Genius
eonardo da Vinci was a brilliant artist, scientist, engineer, mathematician, architect, inventor, writer, and even musician—the archetypal Renaissance man. But he was also, Fritjof Capra argues, a profoundly modern man. Not only did Leonardo invent the empirical scientific method over a century before Galileo and Francis Bacon, but Capra's decade-long study of Leonardo's fabled notebooks reveal him as a systems thinker centuries before the term was coined. He believed the key to truly understanding the world was in perceiving the connections between phenomena and the larger patterns formed by those relationships. This is precisely the kind of holistic approach the complex problems we face today demand. Capra describes seven defining characteristics of Leonardo da Vinci's genius and includes a list of over forty discoveries Leonardo made that weren't rediscovered until centuries later. Leonardo pioneered entire fields—fluid dynamics, theoretical botany, aerodynamics, embryology. Capra's overview of Leonardo's thought follows the organizational scheme Leonardo himself intended to use if he ever published his notebooks. So in a sense, this is Leonardo's science as he himself would have presented it. Leonardo da Vinci saw the world as a dynamic, integrated whole, so he always applied concepts from one area to illuminate problems in another. For example, his studies of the movement of water informed his ideas about how landscapes are shaped, how sap rises in plants, how air moves over a bird's wing, and how blood flows in the human body. His observations of nature enhanced his art, his drawings were integral to his scientific studies, and he brought art and science together in his extraordinarily beautiful and elegant mechanical and architectural designs. Obviously, we can't all be geniuses on the scale of Leonardo da Vinci. But by exploring the mind of the preeminent Renaissance genius, we can gain profound insights into how best to address the challenges of the 21st century.
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Roll of Thunder from the Void: Volume 2: Vajrakila Texts of the Northern Treasures Tradition

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Roll of Thunder from the Void: Volume 2: Vajrakila Texts of the Northern Treasures Tradition by Martin J. Boord
English | 2012 (2010) | ISBN: 3942380056 | ISBN-13: 9783942380058 | 432 pages | PDF | 19,3 MB
This important collection of teachings from the Northern Treasures Vajrakila cycle includes liturgical practice texts (sadhana) from the original treasure revelations, together with explanatory notes and commentaries by the 17th century master Padma 'phrin-las on how to take these practices into a closed retreat and employ them for the highest benefit of oneself and all living beings.

Roll of Thunder from the Void: Volume 2: Vajrakila Texts of the Northern Treasures Tradition
Having become empowered in the mandala of Vajrakila by a master guru, trainees may use the skillful esoteric techniques, described herein, in order to develop a profound experiential certainty of the true nature of reality. These texts are manuals, designed to be studied by disciplined individuals who wish to train themselves in skilful altruism. They are traditional methods for overcoming the instincts of egoistic self-interest, allowing the mind to become focussed on the general welfare of the world, so that beneficial changes of great social value may be brought about in both thought and behaviour. Painstakingly researched and annotated, this volume includes English translations of eight important texts, together with much of the original Tibetan. Within the instructions for the preparation and protection of the retreat area are hitherto unpublished details of the means to suppress the various classes of afflicting demons (sri) that are potential causes of downfall for all tantric yogins. This is an ancient and vital aspect of vajrayana ritual practice that has been much neglected until now.
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