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The History of Problem Gambling: Temperance, Substance Abuse, Medicine, and Metaphors

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The History of Problem Gambling: Temperance, Substance Abuse, Medicine, and Metaphors by Peter Ferentzy and Nigel E. Turner
English | 2013-03-28 | ISBN: 1461466989 | PDF | 200 pages | 4,8 MB

The History of Problem Gambling: Temperance, Substance Abuse, Medicine, and Metaphors
This book documents the history of ideas about problem gambling and its link to addictive disorders. The book uses a combination of literature review and conceptual and linguistic analysis to explore the way ideas about problem gambling gave changed over time. It examines the religious, socio-cultural, and medical influences on the development of the concept of problem gambling as a disease, along with the ways in which such ideas were influenced by attitudes about substance abuse. The history of mental illness, notably as it pertains to themes such as loss of control over behavior, is also addressed. The book ends with a discussion of the current status and future prospects, with an eye to which ideas about problem gambling and addictions seem most promising and which should perhaps be left behind.
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Enzymatic Polymerisation (Advances in Polymer Science)

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Enzymatic Polymerisation (Advances in Polymer Science) By G. M. Guebitz, Anja R. A. Palmans, Andreas Heise
2011 | 157 Pages | ISBN: 3642163750 | PDF | 4 MB

Enzymatic Polymerisation (Advances in Polymer Science)
The application of nature's toolset is a fast-growing area in several industries, such as food, ?ne chemicals and polymers. Speciacally in vitro enzymatic catalysis has seen a steady increase in (industrial) applications where enzyme catalysis has established itself as an indispensable tool in the synthesis of small molecules. Examples can be found in the production of pharmaceutical intermediates, where biotechnology generates signi?cant turnover and reduces the environmental impact. In recent years, enzyme catalysis was also successfully applied in polymer synthesis. The motivation for using enzymes in polymer synthesis was initially mainly scientic curiosity, but as this technology started to produce results comparable to conventional polymerizations, the potential was recognized. The possibility of making polymers that are not available from conventionalmethods and their natural character make enzymes a particularly promising catalytic system. The goal of this book is to provide an overview of enzyme catalysis in polymer synthesis structured according to the different enzyme classes used in these reactions. Notably, three of
the six enzyme groups have been reported in enzymatic polymerization in vitro, i.e. oxidoreductases, transferases and hydrolases.
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German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)

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German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)
Pen and Sword Military | 2012 | ISBN: 1848844824 | English | 160 Pages | EPUB | 41 MB

German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)
In the aftermath of The Great War, which saw the introduction of the tank, the more far sighted military leaders realized that the future of warfare hinged on a balance of mobility, firepower and protection.Tanks would need to be accompanied into battle by supporting arms, specifically infantry, artillery and engineers. An all fully-tracked field army was thought to be too expensive, so the semi-tracked support vehicle (commonly called a halftrack) was born. The halftrack concept was embraced by the French, the US and most notably Germany. The Germans commissioned numerous types of half-tracked tractors, which were classified by the weight of their towed load. These vehicles were designated Sonderkraffarzeug (special motorized vehicle), abbreviated as Sd.Kfz. Without these vehicles the Blitzkrieg would not have been possible.These front-wheel steering vehicles with tracked drive transformed the fighting quality of the armored divisions. They carried the infantry alongside the advancing panzers and brought guns and pontoon-bridge sections. The halftrack also became the preferred reconnaissance vehicle.
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German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)

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German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)
Pen and Sword Military | 2012 | ISBN: 1848844824 | English | 160 Pages | EPUB | 41 MB

German Halftracks At War 1939-1945 (Images of War)
In the aftermath of The Great War, which saw the introduction of the tank, the more far sighted military leaders realized that the future of warfare hinged on a balance of mobility, firepower and protection.Tanks would need to be accompanied into battle by supporting arms, specifically infantry, artillery and engineers. An all fully-tracked field army was thought to be too expensive, so the semi-tracked support vehicle (commonly called a halftrack) was born. The halftrack concept was embraced by the French, the US and most notably Germany. The Germans commissioned numerous types of half-tracked tractors, which were classified by the weight of their towed load. These vehicles were designated Sonderkraffarzeug (special motorized vehicle), abbreviated as Sd.Kfz. Without these vehicles the Blitzkrieg would not have been possible.These front-wheel steering vehicles with tracked drive transformed the fighting quality of the armored divisions. They carried the infantry alongside the advancing panzers and brought guns and pontoon-bridge sections. The halftrack also became the preferred reconnaissance vehicle.
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Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad

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Martin Lorenz-Meyer, "Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad"
2007 | ISBN-10: 0826217192 | 392 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad
As Germany faced inevitable defeat in World War II, the Allies became concerned that the Nazis would attempt to hide their assets in neutral countries – Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey – in order to revive their cause in later years. To address this danger, the United States, along with Britain and France as reluctant partners, initiated the "Safehaven" program to probe questions of secret foreign bank accounts, the German wartime gold trade, and the actions of German companies abroad toward the end of the Nazi regime. Initiated by the Federal Economic Administration, Safehaven was soon integrated with U.S. plans, advocated by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, to avert future German aggression. These proposals quickly fell out of favor, but the Morgenthau Plan's suggestion to use all German assets as reparations remained attractive. In this first detailed historical study of Safehaven in English, Martin Lorenz-Meyer focuses on policies of the Allies, revealing their disagreements about the program and addressing the historical roots of a problem that over decades the Cold War had successfully buried. Lorenz-Meyer shows how American administrative agencies were constantly at odds regarding Safehaven's administration and how coordination of the program was further complicated by different assumptions held by the United States and Britain regarding its aims. Using Sweden as an example, he offers an investigation of the effects of Safehaven in the neutral countries, drawing comparisons with experiences of the program in Switzerland. His research discloses the sums involved and the neutral countries' positions and also explores the complications posed by international law for any plan to expropriate German assets. Over time, the neutral countries objected to uncompensated confiscations for a war in which they did not participate, and the United States gradually lost interest in infringing on German wealth because Germany was needed as a new ally. Lorenz-Meyer tells how Safehaven suffered from the discontinuation of wartime controls in a renewed climate of free trade. He also contends that the very problem that necessitated the program raised questions regarding the true neutrality of the countries involved. "Safehaven" is a significant addition to the history of Third Reich and international relations, notably concerning American foreign policy. As America continues to face foreign-policy dilemmas regarding trade with enemies and issues of neutrality, "Safehaven" offers an illuminating case history that sheds new light on current affairs.
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Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad

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Martin Lorenz-Meyer, "Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad"
2007 | ISBN-10: 0826217192 | 392 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad
As Germany faced inevitable defeat in World War II, the Allies became concerned that the Nazis would attempt to hide their assets in neutral countries – Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey – in order to revive their cause in later years. To address this danger, the United States, along with Britain and France as reluctant partners, initiated the "Safehaven" program to probe questions of secret foreign bank accounts, the German wartime gold trade, and the actions of German companies abroad toward the end of the Nazi regime. Initiated by the Federal Economic Administration, Safehaven was soon integrated with U.S. plans, advocated by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, to avert future German aggression. These proposals quickly fell out of favor, but the Morgenthau Plan's suggestion to use all German assets as reparations remained attractive. In this first detailed historical study of Safehaven in English, Martin Lorenz-Meyer focuses on policies of the Allies, revealing their disagreements about the program and addressing the historical roots of a problem that over decades the Cold War had successfully buried. Lorenz-Meyer shows how American administrative agencies were constantly at odds regarding Safehaven's administration and how coordination of the program was further complicated by different assumptions held by the United States and Britain regarding its aims. Using Sweden as an example, he offers an investigation of the effects of Safehaven in the neutral countries, drawing comparisons with experiences of the program in Switzerland. His research discloses the sums involved and the neutral countries' positions and also explores the complications posed by international law for any plan to expropriate German assets. Over time, the neutral countries objected to uncompensated confiscations for a war in which they did not participate, and the United States gradually lost interest in infringing on German wealth because Germany was needed as a new ally. Lorenz-Meyer tells how Safehaven suffered from the discontinuation of wartime controls in a renewed climate of free trade. He also contends that the very problem that necessitated the program raised questions regarding the true neutrality of the countries involved. "Safehaven" is a significant addition to the history of Third Reich and international relations, notably concerning American foreign policy. As America continues to face foreign-policy dilemmas regarding trade with enemies and issues of neutrality, "Safehaven" offers an illuminating case history that sheds new light on current affairs.
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Reflections on Judging

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Richard A. Posner, "Reflections on Judging"
English | ISBN: 0674725085 | 2013 | 332 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Reflections on Judging
In "," Richard Posner distills the experience of his thirty-one years as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Surveying how the judiciary has changed since his 1981 appointment, he engages the issues at stake today, suggesting how lawyers should argue cases and judges decide them, how trials can be improved, and, most urgently, how to cope with the dizzying pace of technological advance that makes litigation ever more challenging to judges and lawyers. For Posner, legal formalism presents one of the main obstacles to tackling these problems. Formalist judges–most notably Justice Antonin Scalia–needlessly complicate the legal process by advocating "canons of constructions" (principles for interpreting statutes and the Constitution) that are confusing and self-contradictory. Posner calls instead for a renewed commitment to legal realism, whereby a good judge gathers facts, carefully considers context, and comes to a sensible conclusion that avoids inflicting collateral damage on other areas of the law. This, Posner believes, was the approach of the jurists he most admires and seeks to emulate: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, Learned Hand, Robert Jackson, and Henry Friendly, and it is an approach that can best resolve our twenty-first-century legal disputes.
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Reflections on Judging

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Richard A. Posner, "Reflections on Judging"
English | ISBN: 0674725085 | 2013 | 332 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Reflections on Judging
In "," Richard Posner distills the experience of his thirty-one years as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Surveying how the judiciary has changed since his 1981 appointment, he engages the issues at stake today, suggesting how lawyers should argue cases and judges decide them, how trials can be improved, and, most urgently, how to cope with the dizzying pace of technological advance that makes litigation ever more challenging to judges and lawyers. For Posner, legal formalism presents one of the main obstacles to tackling these problems. Formalist judges–most notably Justice Antonin Scalia–needlessly complicate the legal process by advocating "canons of constructions" (principles for interpreting statutes and the Constitution) that are confusing and self-contradictory. Posner calls instead for a renewed commitment to legal realism, whereby a good judge gathers facts, carefully considers context, and comes to a sensible conclusion that avoids inflicting collateral damage on other areas of the law. This, Posner believes, was the approach of the jurists he most admires and seeks to emulate: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, Learned Hand, Robert Jackson, and Henry Friendly, and it is an approach that can best resolve our twenty-first-century legal disputes.
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Stochastic Calculus with Infinitesimals

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Stochastic Calculus with Infinitesimals (Lecture Notes in Mathematics) by Frederik S. Herzberg
English | 2012-11-07 | ISBN: 3642331483 | PDF | 130 pages | 1 MB

Stochastic Calculus with Infinitesimals
Stochastic analysis is not only a thriving area of pure mathematics with intriguing connections to partial differential equations and differential geometry. It also has numerous applications in the natural and social sciences (for instance in financial mathematics or theoretical quantum mechanics) and therefore appears in physics and economics curricula as well. However, existing approaches to stochastic analysis either presuppose various concepts from measure theory and functional analysis or lack full mathematical rigour. This short book proposes to solve the dilemma: By adopting E. Nelson's "radically elementary" theory of continuous-time stochastic processes, it is based on a demonstrably consistent use of infinitesimals and thus permits a radically simplified, yet perfectly rigorous approach to stochastic calculus and its fascinating applications, some of which (notably the Black-Scholes theory of option pricing and the Feynman path integral) are also discussed in the book.
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