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Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction

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Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
English | Physics | 5. September 2008 | ISBN-10: 1405162228 | 400 pages | pdf | 10 mb
Powder diffraction is one of the primary techniques used to characterize materials, providing structural information even when the crystallite size is too small for single crystal x-ray diffraction methods.

Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
There has been a significant increase in the application of powder diffraction in recent years, both in research and manufacturing, fuelled by improved instrumentation, data processing and awareness of the information that can be obtained. Powder diffraction allows for rapid, non-destructive analysis of multi-component mixtures without the need for extensive sample preparation. This gives laboratories the ability to quickly analyse unknown materials and perform materials characterization in such fields as chemistry, materials science, geology, mineralogy, forensics, archaeology, and the biological and pharmaceutical sciences.

This book provides a concise introduction to modern powder diffraction methods with particular emphasis on practical aspects. It covers the background theory of diffraction in a form approachable by those with an undergraduate degree. Whilst individual chapters are written as stand alone sections, the text is sufficiently focused so that it can be read in its entirety by the non-specialist who wants to gain a rapid overview of what they can do with modern powder diffraction methods.
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Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

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Jacob Benesty, Jingdong Chen, "Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays"
English | 2013 | ISBN-10: 364233752X, 3642427561 | 180 pages | PDF | 6 MB

Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays
Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer output tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) who have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary objective is to develop a rigorous but yet simple theory

for the design, implementation, and performance analysis of DMAs. The theory includes some signal processing techniques for the design of commonly used first-order, second-order, third-order, and also the general Nth-order DMAs. For each order, particular examples are given on how to form standard directional patterns such as the dipole, cardioid, supercardioid, hypercardioid, subcardioid, and quadrupole. The study demonstrates the performance of the different order DMAs in terms of beampattern, directivity factor, white noise gain, and gain for point sources. The inherent relationship between differential processing and adaptive beamforming is discussed, which provides a better understanding of DMAs and why they can achieve high directional gain. Finally, we show how to design DMAs that can be robust against white noise amplification.
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Stochastic Dynamics by Hans Crauel

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Stochastic Dynamics by Hans Crauel
English | March 26, 1999 | ISBN: 0387985123 | 455 Pages | PDF | 8 MB
Focusing on the mathematical description of stochastic dynamics in discrete as well as in continuous time, this book investigates such dynamical phenomena as perturbations, bifurcations and chaos. It also introduces new ideas for the exploration of infinite dimensional systems, in particular stochastic partial differential equations.

Stochastic Dynamics by Hans Crauel
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Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China

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Enze Han, "Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China"
2013 | ISBN-10: 0199936293 | 240 pages | PDF | 13 MB

Contestation and Adaptation: The Politics of National Identity in China
Contestation and Adaptation unravels the complexities of national-identity contestation among various ethnic minority groups in China. It focuses on the interactions between domestic and international forces that inform ethnic groups' national-identity contestation, positing a theoretical framework where international factors play a significant role in determining why and when ethnic groups will contest the national identities imposed on them by central governments as part of the nation-building process.

Simmering grievances and occasional outbursts of social unrest among ethnic minority populations in China challenge not only the ruling party's legitimacy and governance, but also contemporary Chinese national identity and the territorial integrity of the Chinese state. But, as Enze Han points out, of the fifty-five ethnic minority groups in China, only the Tibetans and Uyghurs have forcefully contested the idea of a Chinese national identity. He argues that whether ethnic groups contest those national identities depends on whether they perceive a better, achievable alternative. In particular, Han argues that ethnic groups with extensive external kinship networks are most likely to perceive a capacity to achieve better circumstances and are, therefore, more likely to politically mobilize to contest national identity. In the absence of such alternatives ethnic groups are more likely to cope with their situation through emigration, political ambivalence, or assimilation. Using this theoretical framework, the book compares the way that five major ethnic minority groups in China negotiate their national identities with the Chinese nation-state: Uyghurs, Chinese Koreans, Dai, Mongols, and Tibetans. Overall, Contestation and Adaptation sheds light on the nation-building processes in China over the past six decades and the ways that different groups have resisted or acquiesced in their dealings with the Chinese state and majority Han Chinese society.
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Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties

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Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties by Lars Rebohle and Wolfgang Skorupa
English | 2010-10-21 | ISBN: 3642144462 | PDF | 220 pages | 3 MB

Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties
The book concentrates on the microstructural, electric and optoelectronic properties of rare-earth implanted MOS structures and their use as light emitters in potential applications. It describes the structural formation processes in the gate oxide during fabrication and under operation, how this microstructure development will affect the electrical device performance and how both microstructure and electrical characteristics determine the optoelectronic features of the light emitters. However, most of the discussed physical processes as well as the described fabrication methods and device characterization techniques are of general interest and are beyond the scope of this type of light emitter. The book will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists dealing either with Si based photonics in particular or optoelectronic device fabrication and characterization in general.
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Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties

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Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties by Lars Rebohle and Wolfgang Skorupa
English | 2010-10-21 | ISBN: 3642144462 | PDF | 220 pages | 3 MB

Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics: Microstructural, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties
The book concentrates on the microstructural, electric and optoelectronic properties of rare-earth implanted MOS structures and their use as light emitters in potential applications. It describes the structural formation processes in the gate oxide during fabrication and under operation, how this microstructure development will affect the electrical device performance and how both microstructure and electrical characteristics determine the optoelectronic features of the light emitters. However, most of the discussed physical processes as well as the described fabrication methods and device characterization techniques are of general interest and are beyond the scope of this type of light emitter. The book will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists dealing either with Si based photonics in particular or optoelectronic device fabrication and characterization in general.
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Play Matters

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Play Matters (Playful Thinking series) by Miguel Sicart
2014 | ISBN: 0262027925 | English | 176 pages | PDF | 7 MB

Play Matters
What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play? In , Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design. Sicart proposes a theory of play that doesn't derive from a particular object or activity but is a portable tool for being–not tied to objects but brought by people to the complex interactions that form their daily lives. It is not separated from reality; it is part of it. It is pleasurable, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play — instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty, the aesthetics of play through action; political play — from Maradona's goal against England in the 1986 World Cup to the hactivist activities of Anonymous; the political, aesthetic, and moral activity of game design; and why play and computers get along so well.
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Piles and Pile Foundations

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Piles and Pile Foundations by Carlo Viggiani, Alessandro Mandolini, Gianpiero Russo
2012 | ISBN: 0415490669 | English | 289 pages | PDF | 26 MB

Piles and Pile Foundations
Piled foundations are generally designed using empirical methods, in particular the traditional capacity based approach on which the majority of codes of practice are based. However in recent years the analysis of pile groups and piled rafts has undergone substantial development in the light of new research and the mechanisms for the interactions between piles, soil and rafts or caps have been largely clarified. Paradoxically, with relatively large piled rafts it has been found that a design based on the criterion of serviceability, with the limitation of absolute and/or differential settlement, not only allows a more rational and economical design, but is also simpler and more reliable than one based on the traditional approach.

This book provides an overview of present design practice of piled foundations, under both vertical and horizontal loads, and then a presentation of recent advances in the analysis and design of piled rafts. Altogether it forms a thorough guide to the design and analysis of efficient and effective piled rafts, and it also serves as a useful design handbook for traditional pile foundations.
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Tales of Gotham, Historical Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Microhistory of New York City

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Tales of Gotham, Historical Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Microhistory of New York City by Meta F. Janowitz and Diane Dallal
English | ISBN: 1461452716 | 2013 | PDF | 389 pages | 10 MB

Tales of Gotham, Historical Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Microhistory of New York City
Historical Archaeology of New York City is a collection of narratives about people who lived in New York City during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, people whose lives archaeologists have encountered during excavations at sites where these people lived or worked. The stories are ethnohistorical or microhistorical studies created using archaeological and documentary data. As microhistories, they are concerned with particular people living at particular times in the past within the framework of world events. The world events framework will be provided in short introductions to chapters grouped by time periods and themes. The foreword by Mary Beaudry and the afterword by LuAnne DeCunzo bookend the individual case studies and add theoretical weight to the volume. Historical Archaeology of New York City focuses on specific individual life stories, or stories of groups of people, as a way to present archaeological theory and research. Archaeologists work with material culture-artifacts-to recreate daily lives and study how culture works; this book is an example of how to do this in a way that can attract people interested in history as well as in anthropological theory.
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