Tag Archives: Philosophical,

Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment

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Natasha Gill, "Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment"
English | 2010 | ISBN-10: 0754662896 | 304 pages | PDF | 4 MB

Educational Philosophy in the French Enlightenment
Though Emile is still considered the central pedagogical text of the French Enlightenment, a myriad of lesser-known thinkers paved the way for Rousseau's masterpiece. Natasha Gill traces the arc of these thinkers as they sought to reveal the correlation between early childhood experiences and the success or failure of social and political relations, and set the terms for the modern debate about the influence of nature and nurture in individual growth and collective life. Gill offers a comprehensive analysis of the rich cross-fertilization between educational and philosophical thought in the French Enlightenment. She begins by showing how in Some Thoughts Concerning Education John Locke set the stage for the French debate by transposing key themes from his philosophy into an educational context. Her treatment of the abbe Claude Fleury, the rector of the University of Paris Charles Rollin, and Swiss educator Jean-Pierre de Crousaz illustrates the extent to which early Enlightenment theorists reevaluated childhood and learning methods on the basis of sensationist psychology. Etienne-Gabriel Morelly, usually studied as a marginal thinker in the history of utopian thought, is here revealed as the most important precursor to Rousseau, and the first theorist to claim education as the vehicle through which individual liberation, social harmony and political unity could be achieved. Gill concludes with an analysis of the educational-philosophical dispute between Helvetius and Rousseau, and traces the influence of pedagogical theory on the political debate surrounding the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1762.

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Addiction and Responsibility

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Jeffrey Poland, George Graham, "Addiction and Responsibility"
English | 2011 | ISBN-10: 0262015501 | 320 pages | PDF | 18 MB

Addiction and Responsibility
Addictive behavior threatens not just the addict's happiness and health but also the welfare and well-being of others. It represents a loss of self-control and a variety of other cognitive impairments and behavioral deficits. An addict may say, "I couldn't help myself." But questions arise: are we responsible for our addictions? And what responsibilities do others have to help us? This volume offers a range of perspectives on addiction and responsibility and how the two are bound together. Distinguished contributors — from theorists to clinicians, from neuroscientists and psychologists to philosophers and legal scholars — discuss these questions in essays using a variety of conceptual and investigative tools.

Some contributors offer models of addiction-related phenomena, including theories of incentive sensitization, ego-depletion, and pathological affect; others address such traditional philosophical questions as free will and agency, mind-body, and other minds. Two essays, written by scholars who were themselves addicts, attempt to integrate first-person phenomenological accounts with the third-person perspective of the sciences. Contributors distinguish among moral responsibility, legal responsibility, and the ethical responsibility of clinicians and researchers. Taken together, the essays offer a forceful argument that we cannot fully understand addiction if we do not also understand responsibility.

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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (Vipassana Meditation and the Buddha’s Teachings)

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A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (Vipassana Meditation and the Buddha's Teachings) by Bhikkhu Bodhi
English | Sep 1, 2003 | ISBN: 1928706029, 9552401038 | 400 Pages | PDF | 1.8 MB
This modern translation of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (Manual of Abhidhamma) offers an introduction to Buddhism's fundamental philosophical psychology. Originally written in the 11th or 12th century, the Sangaha has served as the key to wisdom held in the Abhidhamma.

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (Vipassana Meditation and the Buddha’s Teachings)
Concisely surveyed are Abhidhamma's central themes, including states of consciousness and mental factors, the functions and processes of the mind, the material world, dependent arising, and the methods and stages of meditation. This presents an exact translation of the Sangaha alongside the original Pali text. A detailed, explanatory guide with more than 40 charts and tables lead readers through the complexities of Adhidhamma.
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The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (with a New Epilogue) by Frank Kermode

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The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (with a New Epilogue) by Frank Kermode
English | Apr 6, 2000 | ISBN: 0195136128 | 219 Pages | PDF | 8 MB
Frank Kermode is one of our most distinguished critics of English literature. Here, he contributes a new epilogue to his collection of classic lectures on the relationship of fiction to age-old concepts of apocalyptic chaos and crisis.

The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (with a New Epilogue) by Frank Kermode
Prompted by the approach of the millennium, he revisits the book which brings his highly concentrated insights to bear on some of the most unyielding philosophical and aesthetic enigmas.
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From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation

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From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation by Umberto Eco, Anthony Oldcorn
English | 2014 | ISBN: 0674049187 | 640 pages | PDF | 5 MB

From the Tree to the Labyrinth: Historical Studies on the Sign and Interpretation
The way we create and organize knowledge is the theme of From the Tree to the Labyrinth, a major achievement by one of the world's foremost thinkers on language and interpretation. Umberto Eco begins by arguing that our familiar system of classification by genus and species derives from the Neo-Platonist idea of a "tree of knowledge." He then moves to the idea of the dictionary, which-like a tree whose trunk anchors a great hierarchy of branching categories-orders knowledge into a matrix of definitions. In Eco's view, though, the dictionary is too rigid: it turns knowledge into a closed system.

A more flexible organizational scheme is the encyclopedia, which-instead of resembling a tree with finite branches-offers a labyrinth of never-ending pathways. Presenting knowledge as a network of interlinked relationships, the encyclopedia sacrifices humankind's dream of possessing absolute knowledge, but in compensation we gain the freedom to pursue an infinity of new connections and meanings.

Moving effortlessly from analyses of Aristotle and James Joyce to the philosophical difficulties of telling dogs from cats, Eco demonstrates time and again his inimitable ability to bridge ancient, medieval, and modern modes of thought. From the Tree to the Labyrinth is a brilliant illustration of Eco's longstanding argument that problems of interpretation can be solved only in historical context.
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The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry

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The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry
English | Apr 23, 1987 | ISBN: 0195049969 | 400 Pages | PDF | 15,4 MB

The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World by Elaine Scarry
Part philosophical meditation, part cultural critique, The Body in Pain is a profoundly original study that has already stirred excitement in a wide range of intellectual circles. The book is an analysis of physical suffering and its relation to the numerous vocabularies and cultural forces–literary, political, philosophical, medical, religious–that confront it.

Elaine Scarry bases her study on a wide range of sources: literature and art, medical case histories, documents on torture compiled by Amnesty International, legal transcripts of personal injury trials, and military and strategic writings by such figures as Clausewitz, Churchill, Liddell Hart, and Kissinger, She weaves these into her discussion with an eloquence, humanity, and insight that recall the writings of Hannah Arendt and Jean-Paul Sartre.

Scarry begins with the fact of pain's inexpressibility. Not only is physical pain enormously difficult to describe in words–confronted with it, Virginia Woolf once noted, "language runs dry"–it also actively destroys language, reducing sufferers in the most extreme instances to an inarticulate state of cries and moans. Scarry analyzes the political ramifications of deliberately inflicted pain, specifically in the cases of torture and warfare, and shows how to be fictive. From these actions of "unmaking" Scarry turns finally to the actions of "making"–the examples of artistic and cultural creation that work against pain and the debased uses that are made of it. Challenging and inventive, The Body in Pain is landmark work that promises to spark widespread debate.
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Essays on Non-classical Logic: v. 1

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Heinrich Wansing, "Essays on Non-classical Logic: v. 1"
English | ISBN: 9810247354 | 2001 | 276 pages | PDF | 12 MB

Essays on Non-classical Logic: v. 1
This book covers a broad range of up-to-date issues in non-classical logic that are of interest not only to philosophical and mathematical logicians but also to computer scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence. The problems addressed range from methodological issues in paraconsistent and deontic logic to the revision theory of truth and infinite Turing machines. The book identifies a number of important current trends in contemporary non-classical logic. Among them are dialogical and substructural logic, the classification of concepts of negation, truthmaker theory, and mathematical and foundational aspects of modal and temporal logic.
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