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Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction

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Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
English | Physics | 5. September 2008 | ISBN-10: 1405162228 | 400 pages | pdf | 10 mb
Powder diffraction is one of the primary techniques used to characterize materials, providing structural information even when the crystallite size is too small for single crystal x-ray diffraction methods.

Principles and Applications of Powder Diffraction
There has been a significant increase in the application of powder diffraction in recent years, both in research and manufacturing, fuelled by improved instrumentation, data processing and awareness of the information that can be obtained. Powder diffraction allows for rapid, non-destructive analysis of multi-component mixtures without the need for extensive sample preparation. This gives laboratories the ability to quickly analyse unknown materials and perform materials characterization in such fields as chemistry, materials science, geology, mineralogy, forensics, archaeology, and the biological and pharmaceutical sciences.

This book provides a concise introduction to modern powder diffraction methods with particular emphasis on practical aspects. It covers the background theory of diffraction in a form approachable by those with an undergraduate degree. Whilst individual chapters are written as stand alone sections, the text is sufficiently focused so that it can be read in its entirety by the non-specialist who wants to gain a rapid overview of what they can do with modern powder diffraction methods.
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Microfluidics in Detection Science: Lab-on-a-chip Technologies

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Microfluidics in Detection Science: Lab-on-a-chip Technologies by Fatima H Labeed and Henry O Fatoyinbo
English | 2014 | ISBN: 1849736383 | 294 pages | PDF | 4,4 MB

Microfluidics in Detection Science: Lab-on-a-chip Technologies
The concept of a miniaturised laboratory on a disposable chip is now a reality, and in everyday use in industry, medicine and defence. New devices are launched all the time, prompting the need for a straightforward guide to the design and manufacture of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices.

This book presents a modular approach to the construction and integration of LOC components in detection science. The editors have brought together some of the leading experts from academia and industry to present an accessible guide to the technology available and its potential. Several chapters are devoted to applications, presenting both the sampling regime and detection methods needed. Further chapters describe the integration of LOC devices, not only with each other but also into existing technologies.

With insights into LOC applications, from biosensing to molecular and chemical analysis, and presenting scaled-down versions of existing technology alongside unique approaches that exploit the physics of the micro and nano-scale, this book will appeal to newcomers to the field and practitioners requiring a convenient reference.
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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications

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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications by Surojit Chattopadhyay
English | 2014 | ISBN: 9814463949 | 254 pages | PDF | 30 MB

Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications
Plasma-processed biomimetic structures are an extremely focused and small subset of biomimetics. Although other methods can also be adopted, experimental synthesis of biomimetic structures mainly focuses on plasma processing. This book deals with the theoretical description of photonic structures available in nature, and the physics and applications of biomimetic structures prepared in the laboratory. It discusses anti-reflection properties of moth eye- or cicada wing-type nanostructured materials on semiconductor surfaces, with emphasis on plasma fabrication procedures. It also explains, with the help of related theories, the superhydrophobic or hydrophilic wetting properties demonstrated by most of these natural structures. It discusses biomedical applications, especially in implants, as one of the key applications of such materials.
The book focuses mainly on plasma processing of biomimetic nanostructures and is, therefore, different from similar books that are more general in nature. It presents essential schematics, sufficient details, and advanced instrumentation techniques that would help readers understand why these structures are considered so important in materials science and physics.
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Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey

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Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey
English | Physics, Optics | 9. February 2005 | ISBN-10: 0387220224 | 428 pages | pdf | 3 mb
Nonlinear Optical Crystals contains the most complete and up-to-date reference material on properties of nonlinear optical crystals including:
Traditional and specific applications

Nonlinear Optical Crystals: A Complete Survey
The mathematical formulas necessary for the calculation of the frequency conversion process

A survey of 63 nonlinear optical crystals containing more than 1500 different references with full titles

Recent applications of common and novel nonlinear materials, including quasi-phase matching

Special consideration for periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials

Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories

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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
English | Physics, Mechanics | 1. Jule 2002 | ISBN-10: 0387952756 | 376 pages | pdf | 2 mb
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field.

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unified approach to field theories for elastic solids, viscous fluids, and heat-conducting electromagnetic solids and fluids that include nonlocal effects in both space and time (memory effects). The solutions to the field equations agree remarkably well with atomic theories and experimental observations.
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Non-Linear Instabilities in Plasmas and Hydrodynamics

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Non-Linear Instabilities in Plasmas and Hydrodynamics
English | Physics, Mathematics | November 1999 | ISBN-10: 0750304839 | 180 pages | Djvu | 1 mb
For the first time in a single book, Non-Linear Instabilities in Plasmas and Hydrodynamics presents the underlying physics of fast secondary instabilities.

Non-Linear Instabilities in Plasmas and Hydrodynamics
This exceptionally well-written, introductory book discusses the basic ideas of the physics of secondary or induced, nonlinear instabilities in wave-sustaining media. The authors, world-renowned experts in the field, have brought together the results of papers scattered throughout the literature to explain subjects as diverse as fluctuation chaos, wave-turbulent instabilities, vortex dynamos, beam-plasma interactions, plasma confinement, and the origins of typhoons in the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic fields in galaxies. Paving the way for new and exciting research in the future, this broad, interdisciplinary book enables a wide range of physicists to apply the concepts discussed to obtain new results in plasma physics, space physics, hydrodynamics, and geophysics.
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Novel Optical Resolution Technologies

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Novel Optical Resolution Technologies
English | Physics, Chemistry | 15. February 2007 | ISBN-10: 3540463178 | 313 pages | pdf | 11 mb
After theend ofthe 20th century, the science ofcrystallizationreached a truly exciting stage where new opportunities emerged in both theory and expe- ment.

Novel Optical Resolution Technologies
Variousphysical methodsare capableofresolvingthesurface as wellas theinsidestructureofcrystalsattheatomiclevelwhilenewhigh-performance computingresourcesaffordthecapabilityofmodelingthecomplexlarge-scale alignmentsnecessarytosimulatecrystallizationinrealsystems.Asaresult,the science of crystallization has shifted gradually fromstatic to dynamic science and considerable progress now underlies the complex but beautiful cryst- lization process. I believe that if a de?nitive history of 21st century science is ever written,one of the highlightswill be the science ofcrystallization. This science has the following characteristics: in?nite advances in soph- tication, unlimited opportunities not only for intellectual excitement but also forindustrialmerit,strongcollaborationwithbiologyandmaterialscience,as wellaswithallareasofchemistry.Thevastpotentialofcrystallizationasan- portant?eld ofscience isfar beyondthesimple technologyofpharmaceutical industries during the 20th century. Optical resolution was one small area of chemistry in the last century. This was more a technology than a science, largely because trial and error was the only method to obtain good results. However, the situation is now changing. Therearesomanyappealing,hidden?ndingsintheprocessofcrystallization. Historically, crystallization began in an old laboratory in academia and then gradually shifted to industry. Now,it is making itscomeback in academia due toseveralnewresearchbranchestryingtodiscoverwhatisgoingonduringthe crystallizationprocess.Ibelieve this?eld ofscience isnowgrowingasa result of the wonderfulcoupling between industry and academia. I read a prepublication draft of ,and foundthateachoneofthesegeneralcharacteristicsofsciencehadarealityand sharpness that I had not expected. While it was a sheer delight to revisit each of these triumphs guided by the wise insights and analyses found throughout the book. There is a good balance between the underlying historical material and the design and execution aspects of each topic.
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