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Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

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Jacob Benesty, Jingdong Chen, "Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays"
English | 2013 | ISBN-10: 364233752X, 3642427561 | 180 pages | PDF | 6 MB

Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays
Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer output tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) who have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary objective is to develop a rigorous but yet simple theory

for the design, implementation, and performance analysis of DMAs. The theory includes some signal processing techniques for the design of commonly used first-order, second-order, third-order, and also the general Nth-order DMAs. For each order, particular examples are given on how to form standard directional patterns such as the dipole, cardioid, supercardioid, hypercardioid, subcardioid, and quadrupole. The study demonstrates the performance of the different order DMAs in terms of beampattern, directivity factor, white noise gain, and gain for point sources. The inherent relationship between differential processing and adaptive beamforming is discussed, which provides a better understanding of DMAs and why they can achieve high directional gain. Finally, we show how to design DMAs that can be robust against white noise amplification.
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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories

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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
English | Physics, Mechanics | 1. Jule 2002 | ISBN-10: 0387952756 | 376 pages | pdf | 2 mb
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field.

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unified approach to field theories for elastic solids, viscous fluids, and heat-conducting electromagnetic solids and fluids that include nonlocal effects in both space and time (memory effects). The solutions to the field equations agree remarkably well with atomic theories and experimental observations.
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Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations

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Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations
English | Physics, Mechanics | 15. March 2004 | ISBN-10: 3540209166 | 393 pages | Djvu | 3 mb
Soft matter and biological systems pose many challenges for theoretical, experimental and computational research.

Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations
From the computational point of view, these many-body sytems cover variations in relevant time and length scales over many orders of magnitude. Indeed, the macroscopic properties of materials and complex fluids are ultimately to be deduced from the dynamics of the microsopic, molecular level. In these lectures, internationally renowned experts offer a tutorial presentation of novel approaches for bridging these space and time scales in realistic simulations. This volume addresses graduate students and nonspecialist researchers from related areas seeking a high-level but accessible introduction to the state of the art in soft matter simulations.
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Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity

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W. G. V. Rosser, "Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity"
1968 | pages: 302 | ISBN: 0408433000, 1489962581 | DJVU | 2,3 mb

Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity
One of the arts of teaching is to attack a problem from a different point of view, if the conventional approach has not been fully appreciated. This often helps the class to appreciate the conventional approach more fully. Maxwell's equations are generally introduced during a long course on electromagnetism, in which the correct interpretations and experimental bases of Maxwell's equations are sometimes obscured by the large amount of time of necessity devoted to the important applications of individual laws. The displacement 'current' is often introduced in a way that gives the wrong impression of its role in contemporary electromagnetic theory. There have been refinements of interpretation since Maxwell's time, particularly following the abandonment of the ether theories and the introduction of the theory of relativity. This is particularly true of the displacement 'current'. In this monograph, Maxwell's equations are approached from a different point of view from the conventional approach, namely using Coulomb's law and the transformations of the theory of special relativity. This approach illustrates the essential unity of Maxwell's equations, and the modern interpretation of the various terms in Maxwell's equations. It is the reverse of the historical approach, since the theory of special relativity arose out of optics and electromagnetism.
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Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1

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Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1 By Dr. Muralisrinivasan Natama Subramanian
2014 | 138 Pages | ISBN: 1909030600 | PDF | 1 MB

Introduction to Polymer Compounding: Raw Materials, Volume 1
Polymer Compounding, Volume 1 focuses on aspects of the raw materials used in polymer processing. Polymer compounding comprises a complex heterogeneous system of polymers and other ingredients and, in many ways, the preparation of these materials is still very much an art. It is a powerful tool that will eventually be required as one of the basics of polymer processing. This book provides readers with a wide array of state-of-the-art strategies to develop their knowledge about compounding and the use of polymers while minimising wastage during processing. Details about polymer properties and additives are assembled to provide a one-source repository for compounding. Another important point to be considered in the book is the combination of polymers and additives and the essentials required for the development of economic and environmental incentives in polymer processing. This book will encourage further studies to understand the scientifically challenging polymer processing issues arising during the manufacture of parts for end-use applications. Finally, this volume presents an overview of polymer compounding requirements, as well as an idea of some of the future directions, advances and challenges of polymer processing.
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Making War Forging Revolution: Russia’s Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921

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Peter Holquist, "Making War Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921"
2003 | ISBN-10: 067400907X | 352 pages | Djvu | 6 MB

Making War Forging Revolution: Russia’s Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921
Offering a fundamental reinterpretation of the emergence of the Soviet state, Peter Holquist situates the Bolshevik Revolution within the continuum of mobilization and violence that began with World War I and extended through Russia's civil war. In so doing, Holquist provides a new genealogy for Bolshevik political practices, one that places them clearly among Russian and European wartime measures. From this perspective, the Russian Revolution was no radical rupture with the past, but rather the fulcrum point in a continent-wide era of crisis and violence that began in 1914. While Tsarist and Revolutionary governments implemented policies for total mobilization common to other warring powers, they did so in a supercharged and concentrated form. Holquist highlights how the distinctive contours of Russian political life set its experience in these years apart from other wartime societies. In pursuit of revolution, statesmen carried over crisis-created measures into political life and then incorporated them into the postwar political structure. Focusing on three particular policies – state management of food; the employment of official violence for political ends; and state surveillance -Holquist demonstrates the interplay of state policy and local implementation, and its impact on the lives of ordinary citizens. "Making War, Forging Revolution" casts a new light on Russia's revolution and boldy inserts it into the larger story of the Great War and 20th-century European history.
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The Book of Balance and Harmony

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The Book of Balance and Harmony By Thomas Cleary
Publisher: Nor..th Po..int Press; sixth printing 1998 | 189 Pages | ISBN: 0865473633 | PDF | 10 MB

The Book of Balance and Harmony
"If one can be balanced and harmonious in oneself, then the being that is fundamentally so is clear and aware, awake in quietude, accurate in action; thus one can respond to the less changes in the world."

is a classic thirteenth-century anthology of Taoist writings, including essays, conversations, poetry, and songs from the School of Complete Reality. The writings combine the essences of Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism into an alchemical elixir teaching Vitality, Energy, and Spirit — the "three treasures" of Taoism that promise mental and physical well-being.
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The Book of Balance and Harmony

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The Book of Balance and Harmony By Thomas Cleary
Publisher: Nor..th Po..int Press; sixth printing 1998 | 189 Pages | ISBN: 0865473633 | PDF | 10 MB

The Book of Balance and Harmony
"If one can be balanced and harmonious in oneself, then the being that is fundamentally so is clear and aware, awake in quietude, accurate in action; thus one can respond to the less changes in the world."

is a classic thirteenth-century anthology of Taoist writings, including essays, conversations, poetry, and songs from the School of Complete Reality. The writings combine the essences of Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism into an alchemical elixir teaching Vitality, Energy, and Spirit — the "three treasures" of Taoism that promise mental and physical well-being.
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Abstract Harmonic Analysis of Continuous Wavelet Transforms (Lecture Notes in Mathematics)

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Abstract Harmonic Analysis of Continuous Wavelet Transforms (Lecture Notes in Mathematics) by Hartmut Führ
English | Apr 6, 2005 | ISBN: 3540242597 | 193 Pages | PDF | 1 MB
This volume contains a systematic discussion of wavelet-type inversion formulae based on group representations, and their close connection to the Plancherel formula for locally compact groups.

Abstract Harmonic Analysis of Continuous Wavelet Transforms (Lecture Notes in Mathematics)
The connection is demonstrated by the discussion of a toy example, and then employed for two purposes: Mathematically, it serves as a powerful tool, yielding existence results and criteria for inversion formulae which generalize many of the known results. Moreover, the connection provides the starting point for a – reasonably self-contained – exposition of Plancherel theory. Therefore, the volume can also be read as a problem-driven introduction to the Plancherel formula.
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