Tag Archives: Portugal

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half

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Stephen R. Bown, "1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half"
English | 2012-02-14 | ISBN: 0312616120, 1553655567 | 304 pages | EPUB, MOBI | 5 MB

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half
In 1494, award-winning author Stephen R. Bown tells the untold story of the explosive feud between monarchs, clergy, and explorers that split the globe between Spain and Portugal and made the world's oceans a battleground.

When Columbus triumphantly returned from America to Spain in 1493, his discoveries inflamed an already-smouldering conflict between Spain's renowned monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal's João II. Which nation was to control the world's oceans? To quell the argument, Pope Alexander VI-the notorious Rodrigo Borgia-issued a proclamation laying the foundation for the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, an edict that created an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean dividing the entire known (and unknown) world between Spain and Portugal.

Just as the world's oceans were about to be opened by Columbus's epochal voyage, the treaty sought to limit the seas to these two favored Catholic nations. The edict was to have a profound influence on world history: it propelled Spain and Portugal to superpower status, steered many other European nations on a collision course, and became the central grievance in two centuries of international espionage, piracy, and warfare.

The treaty also began the fight for "the freedom of the seas"-the epic struggle to determine whether the world's oceans, and thus global commerce, would be controlled by the decree of an autocrat or be open to the ships of any nation-a distinctly modern notion, championed in the early seventeenth century by the Dutch legal theorist Hugo Grotius, whose arguments became the foundation of international law.

At the heart of one of the greatest international diplomatic and political agreements of the last five centuries were the strained relationships and passions of a handful of powerful individuals. They were linked by a shared history, mutual animosity, and personal obligations-quarrels, rivalries, and hatreds that dated back decades. Yet the struggle ultimately stemmed from a young woman's determination to defy tradition and the king, and to choose her own husband.
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Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad

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Martin Lorenz-Meyer, "Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad"
2007 | ISBN-10: 0826217192 | 392 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad
As Germany faced inevitable defeat in World War II, the Allies became concerned that the Nazis would attempt to hide their assets in neutral countries – Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey – in order to revive their cause in later years. To address this danger, the United States, along with Britain and France as reluctant partners, initiated the "Safehaven" program to probe questions of secret foreign bank accounts, the German wartime gold trade, and the actions of German companies abroad toward the end of the Nazi regime. Initiated by the Federal Economic Administration, Safehaven was soon integrated with U.S. plans, advocated by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, to avert future German aggression. These proposals quickly fell out of favor, but the Morgenthau Plan's suggestion to use all German assets as reparations remained attractive. In this first detailed historical study of Safehaven in English, Martin Lorenz-Meyer focuses on policies of the Allies, revealing their disagreements about the program and addressing the historical roots of a problem that over decades the Cold War had successfully buried. Lorenz-Meyer shows how American administrative agencies were constantly at odds regarding Safehaven's administration and how coordination of the program was further complicated by different assumptions held by the United States and Britain regarding its aims. Using Sweden as an example, he offers an investigation of the effects of Safehaven in the neutral countries, drawing comparisons with experiences of the program in Switzerland. His research discloses the sums involved and the neutral countries' positions and also explores the complications posed by international law for any plan to expropriate German assets. Over time, the neutral countries objected to uncompensated confiscations for a war in which they did not participate, and the United States gradually lost interest in infringing on German wealth because Germany was needed as a new ally. Lorenz-Meyer tells how Safehaven suffered from the discontinuation of wartime controls in a renewed climate of free trade. He also contends that the very problem that necessitated the program raised questions regarding the true neutrality of the countries involved. "Safehaven" is a significant addition to the history of Third Reich and international relations, notably concerning American foreign policy. As America continues to face foreign-policy dilemmas regarding trade with enemies and issues of neutrality, "Safehaven" offers an illuminating case history that sheds new light on current affairs.
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Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad

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Martin Lorenz-Meyer, "Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad"
2007 | ISBN-10: 0826217192 | 392 pages | PDF | 2 MB

Safehaven: The Allied Pursuit of Nazi Assets Abroad
As Germany faced inevitable defeat in World War II, the Allies became concerned that the Nazis would attempt to hide their assets in neutral countries – Switzerland, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey – in order to revive their cause in later years. To address this danger, the United States, along with Britain and France as reluctant partners, initiated the "Safehaven" program to probe questions of secret foreign bank accounts, the German wartime gold trade, and the actions of German companies abroad toward the end of the Nazi regime. Initiated by the Federal Economic Administration, Safehaven was soon integrated with U.S. plans, advocated by Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, to avert future German aggression. These proposals quickly fell out of favor, but the Morgenthau Plan's suggestion to use all German assets as reparations remained attractive. In this first detailed historical study of Safehaven in English, Martin Lorenz-Meyer focuses on policies of the Allies, revealing their disagreements about the program and addressing the historical roots of a problem that over decades the Cold War had successfully buried. Lorenz-Meyer shows how American administrative agencies were constantly at odds regarding Safehaven's administration and how coordination of the program was further complicated by different assumptions held by the United States and Britain regarding its aims. Using Sweden as an example, he offers an investigation of the effects of Safehaven in the neutral countries, drawing comparisons with experiences of the program in Switzerland. His research discloses the sums involved and the neutral countries' positions and also explores the complications posed by international law for any plan to expropriate German assets. Over time, the neutral countries objected to uncompensated confiscations for a war in which they did not participate, and the United States gradually lost interest in infringing on German wealth because Germany was needed as a new ally. Lorenz-Meyer tells how Safehaven suffered from the discontinuation of wartime controls in a renewed climate of free trade. He also contends that the very problem that necessitated the program raised questions regarding the true neutrality of the countries involved. "Safehaven" is a significant addition to the history of Third Reich and international relations, notably concerning American foreign policy. As America continues to face foreign-policy dilemmas regarding trade with enemies and issues of neutrality, "Safehaven" offers an illuminating case history that sheds new light on current affairs.
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The Ukulele: A History

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The Ukulele: A History by Jim Tranquada and John King
English | 2012 | ISBN: 0824836340, 0824835441 | 296 pages | PDF | 17,6 MB

The Ukulele: A History
Winner of the 2013 Ka Palapala Po'okela Award for Excellence in Special-Interest Books

Early praise: 'Here, at last, is the complete story of the 'ukulele. Thanks to the authors' years of tireless research, the instrument's incredible journey is brought vividly to life. This book is a labor of love and a gift of enduring scholarship.' –Jim Beloff, author of The Ukulele: A Visual History

Since its introduction to Hawaii in 1879, the 'ukulele has been many things: a symbol of an island paradise; a tool of political protest; an instrument central to a rich musical culture; a musical joke; a highly sought-after collectible; a cheap airport souvenir; a lucrative industry; and the product of a remarkable synthesis of western and Pacific cultures. The 'Ukulele: A History explores all of these facets, placing the instrument for the first time in a broad historical, cultural, and musical context.

Drawing on a wealth of previously untapped sources, Jim Tranquada and John King tell the surprising story of how an obscure four-string folk guitar from Portugal became the national instrument of Hawaii, of its subsequent rise and fall from international cultural phenomenon to 'the Dangerfield of instruments,'; and of the resurgence in popularity (and respect) it is currently enjoying among musicians from Thailand to Finland. The book shows how the technologies of successive generations (recorded music, radio, television, the Internet) have played critical roles in popularizing the 'ukulele. Famous composers and entertainers (Queen Liliuokalani, Irving Berlin, Arthur Godfrey, Paul McCartney, Jake Shimabukuro) and writers (Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, P. G. Wodehouse, Agatha Christie) wind their way through its history along with a host of outstanding Hawaiian musicians (Ernest Kaai, George Kia Nahaolelua, Samuel K. Kamakaia, Henry A. Peelua Bishaw). In telling the story of the 'ukulele, Tranquada and King also present a sweeping history of modern Hawaiian music that spans more than two centuries, beginning with the introduction of western melody and harmony by missionaries through the Hawaiian music renaissance of the 1970s and 1980s, to the contemporary stylings of today.
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Rick Steves’ Portugal

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Rick Steves' Portugal by Rick Steves
English | 2013 | ISBN: 1612385443 | 392 pages | EPUB | 16 MB

Rick Steves’ Portugal
You can count on Rick Steves to tell you what you really need to know when traveling in Portugal.

With this guide, you'll explore this relaxed country at the western edge of Europe. Tour Lisbon's cobbled lanes and grand squares, reminders of Portugal's seafaring glory days. Step back into history at the palaces in Sintra and the bone chapel of Évora. Soak up the sun at the Algarve beach of your dreams. When evening comes, enjoy a dinner of fresh seafood stew, and raise a glass of port wine in a toast.

Rick's candid, humorous advice will guide you to good-value hotels and restaurants. He'll help you plan where to go and what to see, depending on the length of your trip. You'll get up-to-date recommendations about what is worth your time and money. More than just reviews and directions, a Rick Steves guidebook is a tour guide in your pocket.
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Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers Who Defied the Nazis

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Susan Elisabeth Subak, "Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers Who Defied the Nazis"
2010 | ISBN-10: 0803225253 | 360 pages | PDF | 3 MB

Rescue and Flight: American Relief Workers Who Defied the Nazis
When Susan Elisabeth Subak discovered that members of the Unitarian Church had helped her Jewish father immigrate to the United States, she was unaware of the impact the organization had made during World War II. After years of research, Subak uncovers the little-known story of the Unitarian Service Committee, which rescued European refugees during World War II, and the remarkable individuals who made it happen. The Unitarian Service Committee was among the few American organizations committed to helping refugees during World War II. The staff who ran the committee assisted those endangered by the Nazi regime, from famous writers and artists to the average citizen. Part of a larger network of American relief workers, the Unitarian Committee helped refugees negotiate the official and legal channels of escape, and when those methods failed, the more complex underground channels. From their offices in Portugal and southern France, they created escape routes through Europe to the United States, South America, and England, and rescued thousands, often at great personal risk.
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The New Portuguese Table: Exciting Flavors from Europe’s Western Coast

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The New Portuguese Table: Exciting Flavors from Europe's Western Coast By David Leite, Nuno Correia
Publisher: Cla.rks.on Pot.ter 2009 | 256 Pages | ISBN: 0307394417 | PDF | 12 MB

The New Portuguese Table: Exciting Flavors from Europe’s Western Coast
This is the perfect cookbook for lovers of salt cod, and it just might be the perfect cookbook for those who dislike the mild, Atlantic fish. Leite, a three-time James Beard-award winner and proprietor of the Web site LeitesCulinaria.com, offers a wealth of recipes for the brackish dried fish, including a traditional version of pastéis de bacalhau (salt cod fritters). But cod is but one of the amaazing dishes offered here. By highlighting the eclectic ingredients and modern techniques that define the country today, Leite brings the often-overlooked foods of Portugal center stage. This fully illustrated book begins with an extensive glossary of Portuguese staples, plus a port primer and an introduction to Madeira, and ends with a chapter devoted to workhorse sundries such as fiery piri-piri paste and smoked paprika oil. Along the way home cooks are introduced to a delectable jumble of dishes that range from classic to contemporary.
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