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Category Theory for the Sciences

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Category Theory for the Sciences by David I. Spivak
2014 | ISBN: 0262028131 | English | 496 pages | PDF | 7 MB

Category Theory for the Sciences
Category theory was invented in the 1940s to unify and synthesize different areas in mathematics, and it has proven remarkably successful in enabling powerful communication between disparate fields and subfields within mathematics. This book shows that category theory can be useful outside of mathematics as a rigorous, flexible, and coherent modeling language throughout the sciences. Information is inherently dynamic; the same ideas can be organized and reorganized in countless ways, and the ability to translate between such organizational structures is becoming increasingly important in the sciences. Category theory offers a unifying framework for information modeling that can facilitate the translation of knowledge between disciplines. Written in an engaging and straightforward style, and assuming little background in mathematics, the book is rigorous but accessible to non-mathematicians. Using databases as an entry to category theory, it begins with sets and functions, then introduces the reader to notions that are fundamental in mathematics: monoids, groups, orders, and graphs — categories in disguise. After explaining the "big three" concepts of category theory — categories, functors, and natural transformations — the book covers other topics, including limits, colimits, functor categories, sheaves, monads, and operads. The book explains category theory by examples and exercises rather than focusing on theorems and proofs. It includes more than 300 exercises, with selected solutions. is intended to create a bridge between the vast array of mathematical concepts used by mathematicians and the models and frameworks of such scientific disciplines as computation, neuroscience, and physics.
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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories

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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
English | Physics, Mechanics | 1. Jule 2002 | ISBN-10: 0387952756 | 376 pages | pdf | 2 mb
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field.

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unified approach to field theories for elastic solids, viscous fluids, and heat-conducting electromagnetic solids and fluids that include nonlocal effects in both space and time (memory effects). The solutions to the field equations agree remarkably well with atomic theories and experimental observations.
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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution

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Mikhail V. Volkenstein, "Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution"
1994 | pages: 402 | ISBN: 3642787908 | DJVU | 4,5 mb

Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution
"Mr. Wolkenstein's , whether or not it proves to give the ultimate truth on the matters with which it deals, certainly deserves, by its breadth and scope and profundity, to be considered an impor­ tant event in the philosophical world." This is a quotation from an introduction written by Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged only name and subject. As for the rest, I could continue quoting Russell, but I would rather say something myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal logic, Wolkenstein rectifies our views on how to approach the logic of life from a formal theoretical basis. Many bio­ logists do not believe that their subject lends itself to the scrutiny of physical theory. They certainly admit that one can simulate biological phenomena by models that can be expressed in a mathematical form. However, they do not believe that biology can be given a theoretical foundation that is defined within the general framework of physics. Rather, they insist on a holistic approach, banning any reduction to fundamental principles subject to physical theory.
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Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction

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Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction by Geraldine A. Johnson
English | 2005-07-28 | ISBN: 0192803549 | PDF | 158 pages | 4,7 MB

Renaissance Art: A Very Short Introduction
Artists like Botticelli, Holbein, Leonardo, Durer, and Michelangelo and works such as the Last Supper fresco and the monumental marble statue of David, are familiar symbols of the Renaissance. But who were these artists, why did they produce such memorable images, and how would their original beholders have viewed these objects? Was the Renaissance only about great masters and masterpieces, or were women artists and patrons also involved? And what about the "minor" pieces that Renaissance men and women would have encountered in homes, churches and civic spaces? This Very Short Introduction answers such questions by considering both famous and lesser-known artists, patrons, and works of art within the cultural and historical context of Renaissance Europe. The volume provides a broad cultural and historical context for some of the Renaissance's most famous artists and works of art. It also explores forgotten aspects of Renaissance art, such as objects made for the home and women as artists and patrons. Considering Renaissance art produced in both Northern and Southern Europe, rather than focusing on just one region, the book introduces readers to a variety of approaches to the study of Renaissance art, from social history to formal analysis.
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Making War Forging Revolution: Russia’s Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921

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Peter Holquist, "Making War Forging Revolution: Russia's Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921"
2003 | ISBN-10: 067400907X | 352 pages | Djvu | 6 MB

Making War Forging Revolution: Russia’s Continuum of Crisis 1914-1921
Offering a fundamental reinterpretation of the emergence of the Soviet state, Peter Holquist situates the Bolshevik Revolution within the continuum of mobilization and violence that began with World War I and extended through Russia's civil war. In so doing, Holquist provides a new genealogy for Bolshevik political practices, one that places them clearly among Russian and European wartime measures. From this perspective, the Russian Revolution was no radical rupture with the past, but rather the fulcrum point in a continent-wide era of crisis and violence that began in 1914. While Tsarist and Revolutionary governments implemented policies for total mobilization common to other warring powers, they did so in a supercharged and concentrated form. Holquist highlights how the distinctive contours of Russian political life set its experience in these years apart from other wartime societies. In pursuit of revolution, statesmen carried over crisis-created measures into political life and then incorporated them into the postwar political structure. Focusing on three particular policies – state management of food; the employment of official violence for political ends; and state surveillance -Holquist demonstrates the interplay of state policy and local implementation, and its impact on the lives of ordinary citizens. "Making War, Forging Revolution" casts a new light on Russia's revolution and boldy inserts it into the larger story of the Great War and 20th-century European history.
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High Noon in the Automotive Industry

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High Noon in the Automotive Industry by Helmut Becker
English | 2006 | ISBN: 3540258698 | 273 Pages | PDF | 3 MB
This book was born from curiosity. To begin with, it was the curiosity of an economist who studied in the 60's in an environment which has subsequently developed from national into global economics.

High Noon in the Automotive Industry
Who has to recognize that politicians, scholars and large segments of society oblivious to supranational authorities and e- nomic globalization forces continue to labour under the notion that they are still fully autonomous and sovereign when shaping national economic policy. And pretend as though their own national state were still the "m- ter in its own house" that despite unbridled market economics could c- tinue to dictate to the economy and companies how to live and in which "rooms". All that has become fiction. The laws of globalization diminish the – noeuvring space for shaping national economic policy. Even if many folks today don't want to hear it: The issue is no longer achieving what is soc- politically desirable for the own society but rather the optimal adaptation of society and social benefits to the politically practicable.
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