Tag Archives: theories

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2nd Edition (6 Volume Set)

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Sergey Edward Lyshevski, Cristian I Contescu, "Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2nd Edition (6 Volume Set)"
2008 | ISBN-10: 0849396395 | 5912 pages | PDF | 158 MB

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2nd Edition (6 Volume Set)
With its original publication, the Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology immediately became the reference against which all other nano references are measured. Noting that the encyclopedia was being assembled by leading authorities at an early stage in the field's development, Sir Harry Kroto, 1996 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, rightfully predicted that the encyclopedia would bring together key advances in a "coherently organized framework." Continuing to cover the field as no other resource, the six-volume second edition crosses disciplines to examine fundamental nano principles, theories, and methodologies, as well as the latest information on nano-relevant properties. It also covers advances in nanoscale engineering, newly developed simulation tools, and emerging computational methods.

Among other accolades, this million-dollar bestseller has gone on to win an Outstanding Academic Book Award from CHOICE magazine.
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Addiction and Responsibility

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Jeffrey Poland, George Graham, "Addiction and Responsibility"
English | 2011 | ISBN-10: 0262015501 | 320 pages | PDF | 18 MB

Addiction and Responsibility
Addictive behavior threatens not just the addict's happiness and health but also the welfare and well-being of others. It represents a loss of self-control and a variety of other cognitive impairments and behavioral deficits. An addict may say, "I couldn't help myself." But questions arise: are we responsible for our addictions? And what responsibilities do others have to help us? This volume offers a range of perspectives on addiction and responsibility and how the two are bound together. Distinguished contributors — from theorists to clinicians, from neuroscientists and psychologists to philosophers and legal scholars — discuss these questions in essays using a variety of conceptual and investigative tools.

Some contributors offer models of addiction-related phenomena, including theories of incentive sensitization, ego-depletion, and pathological affect; others address such traditional philosophical questions as free will and agency, mind-body, and other minds. Two essays, written by scholars who were themselves addicts, attempt to integrate first-person phenomenological accounts with the third-person perspective of the sciences. Contributors distinguish among moral responsibility, legal responsibility, and the ethical responsibility of clinicians and researchers. Taken together, the essays offer a forceful argument that we cannot fully understand addiction if we do not also understand responsibility.

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The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation

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The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation by Angela Tinwell
2014 | ISBN: 146658694X | English | 236 pages | PDF | 11 MB

The Uncanny Valley in Games and Animation
Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny Valley phenomenon when designing human-like characters in digital applications.

In this book, the author provides a synopsis of literature about the Uncanny Valley phenomenon and explains how it was introduced into contemporary thought. She then presents her theories on its possible psychological causes based on a series of empirical studies. The book focuses on how aspects of facial expression and speech can be manipulated to overcome the Uncanny Valley in character design.

presents a novel theory that goes beyond previous research in that the cause of the Uncanny Valley is based on a perceived lack of empathy in a character. This book makes an original, scholarly contribution to our current understanding of the Uncanny Valley phenomenon and fills a gap in the literature by assessing the biological and social roots of the Uncanny Valley and its implications for computer-graphics animation.
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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications

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Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications by Surojit Chattopadhyay
English | 2014 | ISBN: 9814463949 | 254 pages | PDF | 30 MB

Biomimetic Architectures by Plasma Processing: Fabrication and Applications
Plasma-processed biomimetic structures are an extremely focused and small subset of biomimetics. Although other methods can also be adopted, experimental synthesis of biomimetic structures mainly focuses on plasma processing. This book deals with the theoretical description of photonic structures available in nature, and the physics and applications of biomimetic structures prepared in the laboratory. It discusses anti-reflection properties of moth eye- or cicada wing-type nanostructured materials on semiconductor surfaces, with emphasis on plasma fabrication procedures. It also explains, with the help of related theories, the superhydrophobic or hydrophilic wetting properties demonstrated by most of these natural structures. It discusses biomedical applications, especially in implants, as one of the key applications of such materials.
The book focuses mainly on plasma processing of biomimetic nanostructures and is, therefore, different from similar books that are more general in nature. It presents essential schematics, sufficient details, and advanced instrumentation techniques that would help readers understand why these structures are considered so important in materials science and physics.
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials

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Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials by G. V. Kozlov, Yu G. Yanovskii
2014 | ISBN: 1771880414 | English | 384 pages | PDF | 11 MB

Fractal Mechanics of Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Complex Polymeric Materials
This new book explores the consideration of relationships that connect the structural and basic mechanical properties of polymeric mediums within the frameworks of fractal analysis with cluster model representations attraction. Incidentally, the choice of any structural model of medium or their combinations is defined by expediency and further usage convenience only. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly changing and evolving field.

The book presents descriptions of the main reactions of high-molecular substances within the frameworks of fractal analysis and irreversible aggregation models. Synergetics and percolation theory were also used. In spite of the enormous number of papers dealing with the influence of the medium on the rate of chemical reactions (including synthesis of polymers), no strict quantitative theory capable of "universal" application has been put forward up until now. It is now possible to describe the relationship between the reaction rate constants and the equilibrium constants with the nature of the medium in which the reactions take place by means of a single equation. This important book for the first time gives structural and physical grounds of polymers synthesis and curing, and the fractal analysis is used for this purpose.

This new book:

* Highlights some important areas of current interest in polymer products and chemical processes

* Focuses on topics with more advanced methods

* Emphasizes precise mathematical development and actual experimental details

* Analyzes theories to formulate and prove the physicochemical principles

* Provides an up-to-date and thorough exposition of the present state of the art of complex polymeric materials
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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories

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Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
English | Physics, Mechanics | 1. Jule 2002 | ISBN-10: 0387952756 | 376 pages | pdf | 2 mb
Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field.

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body — rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points — in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unified approach to field theories for elastic solids, viscous fluids, and heat-conducting electromagnetic solids and fluids that include nonlocal effects in both space and time (memory effects). The solutions to the field equations agree remarkably well with atomic theories and experimental observations.
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Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity

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W. G. V. Rosser, "Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity"
1968 | pages: 302 | ISBN: 0408433000, 1489962581 | DJVU | 2,3 mb

Classical Electromagnetism via Relativity
One of the arts of teaching is to attack a problem from a different point of view, if the conventional approach has not been fully appreciated. This often helps the class to appreciate the conventional approach more fully. Maxwell's equations are generally introduced during a long course on electromagnetism, in which the correct interpretations and experimental bases of Maxwell's equations are sometimes obscured by the large amount of time of necessity devoted to the important applications of individual laws. The displacement 'current' is often introduced in a way that gives the wrong impression of its role in contemporary electromagnetic theory. There have been refinements of interpretation since Maxwell's time, particularly following the abandonment of the ether theories and the introduction of the theory of relativity. This is particularly true of the displacement 'current'. In this monograph, Maxwell's equations are approached from a different point of view from the conventional approach, namely using Coulomb's law and the transformations of the theory of special relativity. This approach illustrates the essential unity of Maxwell's equations, and the modern interpretation of the various terms in Maxwell's equations. It is the reverse of the historical approach, since the theory of special relativity arose out of optics and electromagnetism.
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Sabotage: America’s Enemies Within the CIA

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Sabotage: America's Enemies Within the CIA By Rowan Scarborough
2007 | 229 Pages | ISBN: 1596985100 | PDF | 3 MB

Sabotage: America’s Enemies Within the CIA
How Bush-hating CIA Bureaucrats Are Sabotaging the War on Terror Since the attacks on September 11, 2001, intelligence collection has become the number-one weapon in the effort to defeat al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden. A Description penetrated is an attack stopped. And to the outside observer, the CIA has performed well as a key partner in the Bush administration's War on Terror. But as Rowan Scarborough reveals in this groundbreaking new book, significant elements within the CIA are undermining both the president and national security through leaks, false allegations, and outright sabotage. Using his first-rate sources in all levels of national security–from field officers to high-ranking analysts to former intelligence heads–Scarborough paints a disturbing picture of partisan politics endangering the success of our campaigns abroad and the very lives of our soldiers and agents. In Sabotage, you'll learn: * How CIA analysts repeatedly leak details about classified intelligence programs with the dual intent of ending them and damaging the president * How, on at least eight occasions, intelligence officials have made serious allegations of wrongdoing against the president's men–which turned out to be false * Why, contrary to popular belief, the CIA has become predominantly liberal * How a CIA turf battle prevented special operators from pursuing and capturing a notorious Taliban leader * How current and former CIA officers fueled conspiracy theories that President Bush orchestrated the 9/11 attacks on America * How a CIA leak to the New York Times deprived the U.S. of critical information in the War on Terror * How press leaks by the CIA have damaged relations with our foreign allies in the War on Terror * How a CIA analyst worked with Democrats to sabotage the nomination of John Bolton to the UN * How Clinton's downsizing of the CIA led to the closing of stations in scores of jihadist breeding grounds–including Hamburg, Germany, where the 9/11 Description was hatched The CIA's job is to collect facts and let the White House, the Pentagon, and the State Department make national security policy. But, as Scarborough conclusively demonstrates, an agency that is supposed to be scrupulously nonpartisan has become increasingly political–during a time of war–against America's elected commander in chief.
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