Fanciful literature is the name for a type of literary works which deals with an ideal society whose realisation is introduced for the future as possibly possible. Confronting of the actual, topical political and social reality, the utopia takes over an exemplary function. This contains idea weaves of the abstract as well as really possible concrete utopias. In the contrast the anti-utopia serves moreover, called also Dystopie, the deterrence.
The following article deals with single literary works of which conceptual the idea of the utopia forms the basis and whose literary contents are influenced consequently decisively by her.
Utopia is the title one about 1516 published novels of the humanist Thomas Morus (Thomas More) who was name-giving for the fanciful literature (original title: “De optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia”). The name “Utopia” comes from the Greek words ou (nobody) and topos (place) and means so much like “non-place”. Moreover, into English a wordplay to the Greek Eu (well) + arises topos „good place“. It is in Morus’ work therefore about the draught of an ideal society which there is not thus in the reality and serves as a background foil for the criticism of the existing social and political order.
A fanciful novel is a literary work which deals with an ideal society or form of government which there is not. Even if the concept “Utopia” of the novel “Utopia” of the English author Thomas Morus comes, the prototype of all utopias of Platon “the state” which is not realizable description of an ideal form of human living together, though, but is conceivable. Sign of a fanciful novel in the traditional sense is that he describes a closed society (for example, on an island or in distant future). Daniel Defoes “Robinson Crusoe” is a special form of the utopia which is typically for the early 18th century stamped by the Pietismus. Here a single person on an island is moved on which he learns to supply himself and trains his soul according to the pietistic ideals in the dialogue controlled by diary with God. In 20. Century negative utopias (see also come out: Dystopie) in which mostly the fright picture of a future state being is painted. Orwells in 1949 appeared novel “1984” or Huxleys count to it „nice new world“ (1932).
Mental starting point of the utopia of Thomas Morus is the philosophical concept of an ideal state by the Greek philosopher Platon (in his Politeia) as a theoretical working model which claims to construct the ideal cooperation of the social forces cheers the community only in logical-rational principles derived. Although as a counterpicture to an ideal Athenian state thought, a fanciful fascination also exercises of Platon “Atlantis” in the dialogues Timaios and Kritias.
Except Platon “Atlantis” are as other antique fanciful models Euripides’ “Panchaia” (in the work with the title “Hiera Anagraphe”), moreover Theopompos “Meropis” (in the work with the title “Philippic”) and Iambulos’ solar island (the work is received only fragmentarily with Diodor) to call.
As a classically to be called precursor of the modern fanciful literature are beside Thomas Morus’ “Utopia” (1516), Tommaso Campanellas „The solar town“ (1623), “Christianopolis” (1619) of Johann Valentin Andreae and Francis Bacons “Neu-Atlantis” (1626).
The original basic concept of the utopia of an ideal state was based on the abstraction of the historically grown, present power relations whose results were understood as an arbitrary and structural power afflicted and to which for the future no long-term continuance could be awarded – at least no desirable one. The mind whose reason and his imagination rose about the imperfect limitation of the present was set against the power of the reality. Best of all conceivable worlds took place afterwards on the other side Here and Now and it was insignificant, whether this ideal counterworld in the past mythical age (which was settled golden age) or at a distant fantastic place (Utopia).
Exemplarily moreover the forefather of the utopia, Thomas Morus is to be cited, from his work. Sharpened in the ability of the humanist in abstract, systematically rational thinking, served him “Utopia” as a radical and basic criticism of the social relations at that time. In this sense spoke the defender of the utopia, after he had recommended, among the rest, the abolition of the private property in his fanciful counterpicture:
„Now thus I have you, so faithfully I was able who described constitution of this community which is in my opinion not only the best, but also the only one which earns this name…
If this is not an unfair and thankless community, this the noble as they are called, and the goldsmiths (remark: on the other hand, the bankers at that time) and other the slightest worry does not present wastefully… and carries for poor tillers, coal graves, day-laborers, freight hauliers, smiths, carpenters without whom there could not be…
Nochmehr: The empires, not contently, the wage of the arms by squalid personal pinches e-books, still remit laws for this purpose. What has always been wrong, the ingratitude against those who have probably served the community this was formed by them even more terribly, while they lent him legal force and with it the name of the justice.
With God if I think over all that appears to me each of the today’s states only one conspiracy of the empires which pursue under the pretext of the public weal her own advantage and strive with all pinches and tricks to protect the possession of that to themselves what they have acquired wrong and to attain the work of the arms for so low remuneration as possible for themselves and to exploit.“
As Hiltrud ebook noted in her article „to the concept of the utopia and the fanciful novel“, the image of a rationally written state order which allows in her „best state“ a happy human society stood at the beginning of the fanciful literature. As a faultily felt reality is after this consideration a historical one which is surmountable – by selfish wrong legislation led by self-interests grown – by means of the strain of the reason, in principle. The utopia is the „appeal to help the reason to her right in the history.“ (Ebooks: Utopia and fanciful novel. Stuttgart 1999, p. 9)
On the one hand the concept of the utopia developed to the literary type of the „fanciful state novel“ as well as the type of the social utopias as they are represented, among the rest, by the fanciful socialists and her successors, on the other hand he found out an expansion in the Science Fiction and Phantastik. With the socialist, anarchistic and feminist fanciful novels of the last 150 years changed the classical basic concept of developments historical on the other side of imagined ideal state into society draughts free of rule which are derived from social movements and are in the process.
Islands and distant worlds
Scene of the oldest works of telling fanciful literature, to all at the head the name-giving work Utopia of Thomas Morus, is mostly an island which lies at the same time with the narrator, but almost inaccessibly far away. This image is absolutely understandable in the age of the discoveries, nevertheless, new worlds with other people and unknown cultures were found everywhere.
Daniel Defoes “Robinson Crusoe” is leant in some regard against the fanciful novel and typically for the early 18th century stamped by the Pietismus. Here a single person on an island is moved on which he learns to supply himself and trains his soul according to the pietistic ideals in the dialogue controlled by diary with God. However, in the stricter sense must be doubted that it concerns here a utopia because no ideal community is described, but is lighted up a single destiny. Not free of charge the concept of the “Robinsonade” was stamped here. However, the great success of “Robinson Crusoe” absolutely led to attempts to combine the fanciful subject with the Robinsonade: Johann Gottfried Schnabel’s island mountain fortress is probably the best known example of it.
The maybe last work of this category is Roman Erewhon of Samuel Butler (1872) which plays in a country which lies behind nearly invincible mountains on New Zealand.
With the entire discovery of the world and the closing of the last white spots on the maps this kind of the fanciful literature has become dated. Instead, hope lies for a better world now in the future. A typical example of it is Roman Looking Backward (1888) of the American Edward Bellamy whose narrator sinks at the end of the 19th century into a hundred-year-old sleep and wakes only in 2000. He experiences there the immense changes which have taken place since his time and have produced an ideal society.
H also goes to a similar direction. G. Wells in his stories and novels. Although most are arranged of it today rather in the category Science fiction than their co-founder Well can be valid, nevertheless, there also are here crossings. Roman The Time Machine (time machine) of 1894 shows the trip in a distant future in which the people seem to have reached the paradise on earth, besides, have behaved, however, really of the real manhood. In this respect H reaches. G. Wells in this work already on the Dystopien (anti-utopias) of the younger literature ahead.
While in the nineteenth and early twentieth century the positive perception of the technical development became the leading idea of the fanciful literature, the disillusionment of crisis-like capitalism, the failure of the totalitarian state models of the fascism and the communism as well as the material battles of the world wars gave the new material for negative utopias (Dystopie).
Not only the results of political undesirable trends like totalitarianism (best known is here George Orwells Roman in 1984 from 1948 – publishes in 1949, distant Walter Jens’ Roman Nein, the world of the defendants, in 1950), but also false-escorted science are picked out as a central theme in these works. Thus new world (English original good New World, in 1932) points of Roman ebook in an also vision topical oppressive even today what happens if science about ethics is put and is the striving for personal luck the only purpose in life. In many respects Huxley takes up the ideas from Platon Politeia in this novel. Here, besides, the borders are crossed to the Science Fiction. The British author H. G. Wells describes in his Roman Tono-Bungay, appeared in 1909, the results of worldwide capitalism without brakes and foresees with rare clarity the worldwide economic crisis of 1929.
Ostensible discharging of the human reason in the course of the technical revolutions allows little space for the social utopia; for the rest, remain delusional, eerie, unreal imagination things beyond all utopia (Postmodernism fantasy literature).
To make a distinction are a rather theoretically conceptual fanciful literature which flow, among the rest, into concrete models of the fanciful socialism, and the novelistic fanciful literature which ends in the Science Fiction. The fanciful novel is therefore one of the roots of the Science Fiction in the 20th century. Science Fiction distinguishes itself by the fact that technological developments are in the foreground – and only in the second line or also at all the model of an ideal society (utopia) or a reign of terror (Dystopie) is not described. One can summarise that long ago every Science Fiction Roman is not to be looked as a fanciful novel.
The dictator’s novel (chip. “novela del dictador”) is (in particular hispanoamerikanisches) the literary genre which treats the subject of the military dictatorships in the history of Latin-American states. On this occasion, the personal cults of the dictators are looked critically and the relations are analysed between power and freedom.
Although parallels exist to the Latin-American “boom”, the roots hand back this Narrativik to barbarity and civilisation. The life of Facundo Quiroga von Domingo Faustino Sarmiento from 1845. This work practised open criticism to the tyrannical regime of Juan Manuel de Rose as well as in the figure of the Juan Facundo Quiroga, both Argentine Caudillos of the early 19th century.
Examples of the dictator’s novel are Yo, el Supremo (I, the Almighty God) from Augusto Roa Bastos, La fiesta del chivo (The party of the billy goat) from Mario Vargas Llosa. While both previous make a facticity demand, the figure of the dictator is to be looked in El recurso del método (The method of the power) by Alejo Carpentier as fictive Vermengung more really of historical personalities.
Other titles are Santa Evita von Tomás Eloy Martínez, El Señor Presidente (Mr. president. Roman from Guatemala) from the ebook, Conversación en La Catedral (conversation in the “cathedral”) from Mario Vargas Llosa, La Maravillosa Vida Breve de Oscar Wao (The short wondrous life of the Oscar Wao) from Junot Díaz as well as Maten Al León von ebook.
The concept Search (frz. search‚ (post) research‘‚ search‘‚ investigation‘), also Investigation (lat. investigatio e-books’‚ investigation‘) or Research (English research ← from frz. search, see supra), calls the specific, not casual search according to the information of.
During an intensive discussion it is necessary to deal with certain subjects and areas of the affected field. It is advantageous that one can often fall back on already known foreknowledge, possibly from visited events and from preceded searches. This foreknowledge is vital for the choice of the approach and the search for suitable literature.
To disclose the scientific bases on his subject, it is often necessary to pull up literature in the bigger frame. With this process of the search the following tips can maybe be a help.
Investigate in the scientific context it is understood as follows:
find out about something to know
disclose a little bit systematically
Backgrounds and circumstances get to know
can make to themselves a picture.
Process of the Recherchierens
The process of the Recherchierens can be divided in support of land weir as follows:
Phase – before investigating
detailed problem description of the subject provide
if necessary formulation of a search thesis or search question
Arrangement, expiry plan
Phase – while investigating
new information constantly inserts
Examination of the won information, reworking, if necessary changes or
Revised versions carry out
Phase – on investigating
Evaluation of the information
Aim fixation and final problem regulation or weighting
Put up of a final expiry plan.
Journalistic search calls independent procuring of information in contrast to bare processing of press releases, agency material or press conferences.
The journalistic search collects very varied information which lights up a certain subject from different and conflicting points of view to allow such a well-balanced reporting. In the ideal case every information which flows in onto journalistic work should be secured by search. In practice this would mean as a rule a too big expenditure.
Journalistic search uses many tools: among the rest, archives, data banks, personal talks (interview) with affected persons, experts and eyewitnesses, official press material, inquiries with press offices, applications on the basis of of information freedom laws, technical literature or the Internet.
The search is the choosing of the journalism: Only so the people find out the events which would never have come to light without trouble of the journalist. No journalistic job is more difficult, but also thus depending on chances, from the luck – and from detective’s broads small work. Only the diligent and bold undertakes them. (Wolf Schneider, Paul-Josef rough: Manual of the journalism)
Hans Leyendecker is called generally model of the investigating journalism in Germany. (See to this segment also: Investigativer journalism.) today generally it is criticised, on account of the economic bottlenecks journalists are hardly able to investigate enough. Press announcements are taken over often uncritically.
A large part of scientific work exists in the literature study. Literature supplies and bibliographies can be asked about the on-line presence of the libraries, so about library catalogues. Library lists provide here an important assistance because one can question on such a library directly after literature supplies: List of libraries, list of German libraries, list of German town libraries and list of the technical libraries.
Search on the Internet
Quality of on-line documents
Everybody can publish everything in the World Wide web, a quality assurance hardly exists. There exist web pages with droll reports, with contributions to extraterrestrial, with general paranoia, Urbane Legends as well as with criminal contents. Apart from such unusual examples: Private web pages seldom contain all information which is desirable to check her content reliability according to the criteria of scientific publications, because most private web pages are absolutely no scientific publications. The value of information of different document types (everyday examples: Advertising material, daily press, technical periodicals, printed books, handwritten diaries, poetry albums) is quite different.
A lot of information in the web is incomplete, unbooked, argumentative does not overtake consistently understandably, wrong or intentionally (advertisement) like the sponsored links. Now and then texts are falsified in the World Wide web even by hackers, so without approval and against the will of the website owner.
Information can be wrong because they have become outdated (example: a legal basis was changed, however, the information was not updated), or information is faked deliberately (censorship, propaganda, ideological reporting). The value of a lot of information decreases with the time; a lot of information has after few years hardly explanatory power. Also there originate over and over again new fields.
Fleetingness of the World Wide web
The number of all web pages grows faster than the range, the searching machines is available to indicate these web pages. In 1999 the best searching machine with an investigation indicated ebook only about 16% of the contents of the World Wide of web, all examined searching machines reached together 42%. Searching machines tangle own data banks in which they file information (sign results as headwords, link texts) of the web pages, they own no concerning the contents opened full text index of the web pages. It is searched not in the World Wide web, but in the data banks of the searching machines. Because Webcrawler search constantly the World Wide web, the data banks of the searching machines grow constantly and change. The same inquiries can deliver thus on successive days different results. Construction and contents of many web pages are often changed. Hence, concerning the contents significant web pages are not always findable and the exactly same search leads, if the worst comes to the worst, in the emptiness. In the World Wide web any more available web pages cannot be called with luck in the Wayback-Machine. The half-life of hyperlinks amounted in 2002 about 55 months, e-book for the lifetime of a document in 2003 in the WWW 2.5 months.
Competence of information
About the World Wide web more people than ever can access a considerable amount from information. The almost unclear extent of the offers accessible on this way makes difficult, to separate the wheat from the chaff that is to put out high-quality information in it with defensible expenditure (competence of information). Springs must be properly valued ebook.
Somebody who does not know a lot about a subject yet is not often able to understand findings of information on this subject generally properly and to estimate. For example, users could not judge the results of a search for health questions in the World Wide web critically and reliably in a study of the American centre for Disease Control and Prevention. That is the assessment of tips discovered anew often assumes expertises which many people do not have.
Clue for higher valued information is, e.g., the investigation by an editor or an examination according to scientific rules (possibly by Peer-Review blind to duplicate).
Although a huge number of searching services is ready to prove information, most Internet users use only few market-leading searching machines and web lists which prove popular-scientific web pages just and value like scientific ones.
After information scientist Wolfgang G. Stock of the Heinrich Heine’s university of Dusseldorf world regions of digital information can be distinguished: the surface web and the Deep web.
In the surface web one can investigate with the searching tools searching machine, web catalogue, Metasuchmaschine and web main entrance,
in the Deep web one can investigate in data banks and with Hosts.
Floor links of the surface web understands by Querweltein supplements in the Deep web (e.g., bridge sides) or reverse. Hybrid systems are searching tools which offer searches straight through the Internet worlds.
High-quality springs by professional information centres
In Germany professional information centres are entrusted with state and private support with the job to collect literature in her respective field under editorial application, to process, to class and to provide web in data banks and specified searching machines as springs with secure information in the World Wide.
Search service provider
Brokers of information, search service providers, carry out professional Internet searches and use springs mostly liable for costs.
Beside commercial search services there are also several web pages with which private individuals answer questions to too different subjects, for example, Meta-re-search.
Libraries take over search missions. For example, inquiries are answered at the German Internet library within 24 hours by information librarians.
Other forms of the search
Also detectives or detective agencies state investigations. The police carries out criminal investigations and Secret Services spy., Among the rest, besides, unlawful methods are also used like monitoring. Personnel service providers use the search (Research) to the personnel production. Marketing research institutes examine consumers and markets, other search services have specialised, for example, in the patent search.
At school the search counts to the working forms of the free net educational theory. To a working plan a search is carried out by the schoolboys.